November 6, 2015

MANAGING!PEOPLE!&!ORGANISATIONS

1 21129 MANAGING!PEOPLE!&!ORGANISATIONS ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES’&’MARKING’CRITERIA (SPRING’2015) 2 Contact!details!for!queries Query Name Email Tutorial!readings,!marking!guidelines,!feedback,! appeals,!remarking,!assessment!extensions! (one!week from!assessment!submission!date) Your!tutor Tutorial!allocations,!exam!rescheduling, other! unresolved!MPO!queries.! Nancy!Chau (MPO!Admin! Support) mpo@uts.edu.au Special!considerations,!remarking!(only!after! first!consulting!with!your tutor). Ace!Simpson Ace.simpson@uts.edu.au The!assessment!structure!in!this!subject!has!been!designed!to!develop!your!understanding,! critical!thinking!and!essay!writing!skills!in!relation!to!the!objectives!set!out!at!the!beginning!of! the!subject!outline.!A!summary!of!the major!assessments!in!this!subject!is!found!in!the!table! below. Assessment Type Details Contribution! to!final!grade Due!date Assessment!1 Essay 1200!words 25% 12/9/2015 by!9pm Assessment!2 Essay Response!to! feedback 1700!words 300!words 35% 31/10/2015 by!9pm Final!exam Questionnaire Multiple! choice 40% TBA Assessment!item!1:!Essay!(Individual) Completion!of!assignment!will familiarise!you!with!this!course’s performance!requirements!and! feedback!process,!preparing!you!for!the!submission!of!your!second assignment, which!carries!a! higher!weighting.!!! Task!! Write!an!essay!of!1200!words!(+/P 10%)!arguing!a!position!in!relation!to!one of!the!following! topics!from!the!first!half!of!the!semester: 3 • Managing!cultures • Leadership • Human!Resource!Management • Managing!individuals • Managing!teams!and!groups (this!topic!will!be!covered!in!the!lecture!just!days!before!the! assignment!due!date,!hence!you!will!need!special!permission!from!your!tutor!to!write!on! this!topic) Discuss!the!following!statement: The$practices$in$[your$chosen$topic$area]$have$changed$in$the$post5bureaucratic$era.$ Essay!Structure: Introduction Your!essay!should start!with!a!200!(+/P 10%)!word!introduction presenting!your!overall!topic.!! State!your!position,!and!explain!how!you!will use!your!selected!references!to!demonstrate!your! overall!argument.! Body (800!words!+/P 10%) In!the!body!of!the!essay!you!are!to!present!the!structure!of!your!argument!in!different! paragraphs.!Each!paragraph!should!present!one!main!idea!of!your!argument!but!be!linked!to!the! preceding!and!following!paragraphs!with!appropriate!transitions.!Discuss!new!insights and! practices!that!may!have!emerged.!Compare!and!contrast!the!arguments!and!assumptions! embedded!in!your!different!source!materials!(i.e., managerialism!vs.!critical!management!studies! or!stakeholder!perspectives).!Approach!the!topic!from!different!perspectives;!whose!voices!are! dominant!or!missing,!what!are!the!implications!and!what!are!the!new!emerging!questions?! Conclusion Finish!your!essay!with!a!200!(+/P 10%)!word conclusion summarising!your!overall!argument!and! explaining!how!your!references!contributed!to!your!position.! References Select!at!least!four primary!sources!from!the!tutorial!readings!and!prescribed!additional!readings! listed!in!this!syllabus as!the!basis!of!your!argument.!Supplement!your!argument!with!at!least!two! references!from!other,!relevant,!quality!journal!articles.!!Examples!of!quality!journals!include:! Academy$of$Management$Review,$Academy$of$Management$Journal,$Organization,$Organization$ Science,$Organization$Studies,$Administrative$Science$Quarterly,$Human$Relations,$Journal$of$ Management$Inquiry$and Journal$of$Business$Ethics.$Illustrate!your!arguments!with!cases!from! the!lectures!or!relevant!reports!from!reputable!media!outlets!as!secondary!sources.!You!may! also!draw!material!from!the!recommended!textbook!by!Clegg,!Kornberger!and!Pitsis!(2011).! Finally,!provide!a!reference!list!of!your!references!according!to!Harvard!UTS!referencing! conventions. You!may!refer!to!the!following!Harvard!UTS!referencing!guide:! http://www.lib.uts.edu.au/help/referencing/harvardPutsPreferencingPguide 4 Layout Your!essay!should!be!printed!on!one!side!of!A4!paper!only.!Double!space!your!text and!use!2.5 centimetre!wide!margins. The!text!should!be!in!a!12Ppoint!Times!New!Roman!font!and!leftP justified. Pages!should!be!numbered,!with!the!numbers!appearing!in!the!bottom!right!hand! corner!of!the!pages. Note:!Further!guidance!on!the!process and!structure!of!writing!an!essay!is!provided!with!an! example!on!pages!9 to!12 of!this!guide.! Assessment!item!2:!(Individual) Your!second!assignment will!build!upon!your!first!essay!and!involve!two!parts:!constructing!an! essay,!and!responding to!your!tutor’s!feedback!from!your!first!essay.! Task Part!1:!Essay Write!an!academic!essay!of!1700!words!(+/P10%)!in!which you!further!develop!the!arguments!of! your!first!essay by!applying!them!within!the!context!of!one of!the!topics!from!the!second!half!of! the!semester: • Managing!Sustainably:!Ethics!and!Corporate!Social!Responsibility • Globalisation • Managing!communication • Managing!knowledge!and!learning!!(this!topic!will!be!covered!in!the!lecture!just!days! before!the!due!date,!hence!you!will!need!special!permission!from!your!tutor!to!write!on! this!topic) • Innovation,!change!and!rationality (this!topic!will!not!be!covered!in!the!lecture!before!the! due!date,!hence!you!will!need!special!permission!from!your!tutor!to!write!on!this!topic)! Discuss!the!following!statement: Practices$of$[your$chosen$topic$area$for$essay$one]$contribute$to$managing$[your$chosen$topic$ area$from$essay$two]$in$the$post5bureaucratic$era.$ You!may!use!some!of!the!same!text!and!references!from!your!first!essay. References Select!at!least!six!primary!sources!from!the!tutorial!readings!and!prescribed!additional!readings for!this!course. Supplement!your!argument!with!at!least!two!references!from!other!relevant! quality!journal!articles.!Illustrate!your!arguments!by!cases!from!the!lectures!or!relevant!reports! from!reputable!media outlets!as!secondary!sources.!You!may also!draw!material!from!the! recommended!textbook!by!Clegg,!Kornberger!and!Pitsis!(2012).!Provide!a!complete!reference!list! at!the!end!of!your!essay.! 5 Part!2:!Reflective!response!to!Tutor’s Feedback!from!Assignment!1. Your!second!task!is!to!write!a!response of approximately!300!words!(+/P10%),!to!the!feedback! your!tutor!provided!to!your!first!essay.!You!may want!to!break!your!response!down!into!chunks! by!providing!section!headings!based!upon!the!marking!rubric!used!to!provide!student! assignment!feedback.!Explain,!how!you!will!use!this!feedback!to!improve!your!second!essay.! What!have!you!done!differently?!What!have!you!kept!the!same?!Part!two!should!be!presented! on!a!new!page!after!the!reference!list!from!your!second!essay.! Layout Your!essay!and!reflections!should!be!printed!on!one!side!of!A4!paper!only.!Double!space!your! text and!use!2!to!4 centimetre!wide!margins.!The!text!should!be!in!a!12Ppoint!Times!New!Roman! font!and!leftPjustified. Pages!should!be!numbered,!with!the!numbers!appearing!in!the!bottom! right!hand!corner!of!the!pages.! Note:!Further!guidance!on!the!process!and!structure!of!writing!an!essay!is!provided!with!an! example!on!pages!9 to!12 of!this!guide.! Prescribed!readings Prescribed’readings on’power’and’postFbureaucracy Courpasson,!D.!&!Clegg,!S.R.!2012,!’The!polyarchic!bureaucracy:!Cooperative!resistance!in!the!workplace! and!the!construction!of!a!new!political!structure!of!organizations’,!Research$in$the$Sociology$of$ Organizations,!vol.!34,!no.!1,!pp.!55P79. Josserand,!E.,!Villesèche,!F.!&!Bardon,!T.!2012,!’Being!an!active!member!of!a!corporate!alumni!network:!A! critical!appraisal’,!paper!presented!to!the!British$Academy$of$Management,!Cardiff,!UK. Knights,!D.!&!Roberts,!J.!1982,!’The!power!of!organization!or!the!organization!of!power?’,!Organization$ Studies,!vol.!3,!no.!1, pp.!47P63. Prasad,!P.!&!Prasad,!A.!2000,!’Stretching!the!iron!cage:!The!constitution!and!implications!of!routine! workplace!resistance’,!Organization$Science,!vol.!11,!no.!4, pp.!387P403. Simpson,!A.V.,!Clegg,!S.!&!Freeder,!D.!2013,!’Power,!compassion!and!organization’,!Journal$of$Political$ Power,!vol.!6,!no.!3, pp.!385P404.! Simpson,!A.V.,!Clegg,!S.!&!Pitsis,!T.!in!press,!’“I!used!to!care!but!things!have!changed”:!A!genealogy!of! compassion!in!organizational!theory”‘,!Journal$of$Management$Inquiry,$vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 347- 359.. Zimbardo,!P.G.,!Maslach,!C.!&!Haney,!C.!2000,!’Reflections!on!the!Stanford prison!experiment:!Genesis,! transformations,!consequences’,!in!T.!Blass!(ed.),!Obedience$to$authority:$Current$perspectives$on$ the$Milgram$paradigm,!vol.!Mawarh,!NJ,!Lawrence!Erlbraum!Associates,!pp.!193P237.! 6 Prescribed’readings on’culture Brewis,! J.! 2007,! ‘Culture’,! in! D.! Knights! &! H.! Willmott! (eds),! Introducing organizational$ behaviour$ and$ management,!Thomson!Learning,!London,!pp.!344P74. Fredrickson,! B.L.! 2003,! ‘Positive! emotions! and! upward! spirals! in! organizations’,! in! K.S.! Cameron,! J.E.! Dutton!&!R.E.!Quinn! (eds),!Positive$organizational$scholarship,!BerrettPKhoeler,!San!Francisco,!CA,! pp.!163P75. Kärreman,! D.! &! Alvesson,! M.! 2004,! ‘Cages! in! tandem:! Management! control,! social! identity,! and! identification!in!a!knowledgePintensive!firm’,!Organization,!vol.!11,!no.!1, pp.!149P75. Ogbonna,!E.!&!Wilkinson,!B.! 2003,!’The! false!promise!of!organizational!culture!change:!A!case! study!of! middle!managers!in!grocery!retailing*’,!Journal$of$Management$Studies,!vol.!40,!no.!5, pp.!1151P78. Rosen,!M.!1988,!’You!asked!for!it:!Christmas!at!the!bosses’!expense’,!Journal$of$Management$Studies,!vol.! 25,!no.!5, pp.!463P80. Schein,!E.H.!1990,!’Organizational!culture’,!American$Psychologist,!vol.!45,!no.!2, pp.!109P19. WrayPBliss,!E.!2003,!’Quick!fixes,!management!culture!and!drug!culture:!Excellence!and!ecstasy,!bpr!and! brown’,!Culture$and$Organization,!vol.!9,!no.!3, pp.!161P76. Prescribed’readings’on’leadership Bolden,!R.!&!Gosling,! J.! 2006,!’Leadership!competencies: Time! to!change! the! tune?’,! Leadership,!vol.! 2,! no.!2, pp.!147P63. Browning,!B.W.!2007,!’Leadership!in!desperate! times:!An!analysis!of!endurance:!Shackleton’s!incredible! voyage! through! the! lens! of! leadership! theory’,!Advances$ in$Developing$Human$ Resources, vol.! 9,! no.!2, pp.!183P98. Cameron,!K.!2011,!’Responsible!leadership!as!virtuous!leadership’,!Journal$of$Business$Ethics,!vol.!98,!no.! 1, pp.!25P35. Dutton,!J.E.,!Frost,!P.,!Worline,!M.C.,!Lilius,!J.M.!&!Kanov,!J.M.!2002,!’Leading!in!times!of!trauma’,!Harvard$ Business$Review,!vol.!80,!no.!1, pp.!54P61. Gabriel,! Y.! 1997,! ‘Meeting! god:! When! organizational! members! come! face! to! face! with! the! supreme! leader’,!Human$Relations,!vol.!50,!no.!4, pp.!315P42. Herman,!S.!2007,!’Leadership! training!in!a!“notPleadership”!society’,!Journal$of$Management$Education,! vol.!31,!no.!2, pp.!151P5. Meindl,! J.R.,! Ehrlich,! S.B.! &! Dukerich,! J.M.! 1985,! ‘The! romance! of! leadership’,! Administrative$ Science$ Quarterly,!vol.!30,!no.!1, pp.!78P102. WrayPBliss,!E.! 2012,! ‘Leadership!and! the! deified/demonic:!A! cultural!examination! of! ceo! sanctification’,! Business$ethics:$a$European$review,!vol.!21,!no.!4, pp.!434P49. Prescribed’readings’on’human’resource’management Almeida, S., Fernando, M. & Sheridan, A. 2012, ‘Revealing the screening: Organisational factors influencing the recruitment of immigrant professionals’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1950-65. 7 Arrowsmith, J. & Parker, J. 2013, ‘The meaning of ‘employee engagement’ for the values and roles of the HRM function’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 24, no. 14, pp. 2692–2712. Booth, A., Leigh, A. & Varganova, E. 2010, Does racial and ethnic discrimination vary across minority groups? Evidence from a field experiment, Discussion paper Series, DP No. 4947, Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn. Guest, D. 2011, ‘Human resource management and performance: still searching for some answers’, Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 3-13. Greenwood M. 2013, ‘Ethical analyses of HRM: A review and research agenda’. Journal of Business Ethics vol. 114 no. 2, pp. 355-366. Linley, P.A., Harrington, S. & Hill, J.R.W. 2005, ‘Selection and development: A new perspective on some old problems’, Selection and Development Review, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 3-6. Syed,J. & Pio, E. 2010, ‘Veiled Diversity? Workplace experiences of Muslim Women in Australia’, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 115-137. Prescribed’readings’on’managing’individuals Fineman,!S.!2006,!’On!being!positive:!Concerns!and!counterpoints’,!Academy$of$Management$Review,!vol.! 31,!no.!2, pp.!270P91. Reeder,!G.D.,!Pryor,!J.B.,!Wohl,!M.J.!&!Griswell,!M.L.!2005,!’On!attributing!negative!motives!to!others!who! disagree!with!our!opinions’,!Personality$and$Social$Psychology$Bulletin,!vol.!31,!no.!11, pp.!1498P 510. Roberts,!L.!M.,!Spreitzer,!G.,!Dutton,!J.,!Quinn,!R.,!Heaphy,!E.,!&!Barker,!B.!2005,!’How!to!play!to!your! strengths’,!Harvard$Business$Review, vol.!83,!no.!1,!pp.!74P80. Roberts,!L.,!Dutton,!J.,!Spreitzer,!G.,!Heaphy,!E.!&!Quinn,!R.!2005,!’Composing!the!reflected!bestPself! portrait:!Building!pathways!for!becoming!extraordinary!in!work!organizations’,!Academy$of$ Management$Review,!vol.!30,!no.!4, p.!712. Held,!B.S.!2004,!’The!negative!side!of!positive!psychology’,!Journal$of$Humanistic$Psychology,!vol.!44,!no.! 1, pp.!9P46. Parashar,!S.,!Dhar,!S.!&!Dhar,!U.!2004,!’Perception!of!values:!A!study!of!future!professionals’,!Journal$of$ Human$Values,!vol.!10,!no.!2, pp.!143P52. Schwartz,!S.H.!1992,!’Universals!in!the!content!and!structure!of!values:!Theoretical!advances!and! empirical!tests!in!20!countries’,!Advances$in$experimental$social$psychology,!vol.!25,!no.!1, pp.!1P 65. Sluss,!D.M!&!Ashforth,!B.E.!2007,!‘Relational!identity!and!identification:!Defining!ourselves!through!work! relationships’,!Academy$of$Management$Review,!vol.!32,!no1,!pp.!9P32. Wrzeniewski,!A.,!McCauley,!C.,!Rozin,!P.!&!Schawartz,!B.!1997,!’Jobs,!careers,!and!callings:!People’s! relations!to!their!work’,!Journal$of$Research$in$Personality,!vol.!31,!pp.!21P33. Prescribed’readings’on’managing’teams and’groups Barker,! J.R.! 1993,! ‘Tightening! the! iron! cage:! Concertive! control! in! selfPmanaging! teams’,!Administrative$ Science$Quarterly,!vol.!38,!no.!3, pp.!408P37. Frey,!L.R.!2004,!’The!symbolicPinterpretive!perspective!on!group!dynamics’,!Small$Group$Research,!vol.!35,! no.!3, pp.!277P306. Losada,!M.!&! Heaphy,! E.! 2004,! ‘The! role! of! positivity! and! connectivity! in! the! performance! of! business! teams’,!American$Behavioral$Scientist,!vol.!47,!no.!6, pp.!740P65. 8 Smith,! D.M.! &! Edmondson,! A.C.! 2006,! ‘Too! hot! to! handle?! How! to! manage! relationship! conflict’,! California$Management$Review,!vol.!49,!no.!1, pp.!6P31. Tuckman,! B.W.! &! Jensen,! M.A.C.! 1977,! ‘Stages! of! smallPgroup! development! revisited’,! Group$ &$ Organization$Management, vol.!2,!no.!4,!pp.!419P27. Prescribed’readings’on’ethics’and’CSR Cameron,!K.S.,!Bright,!D.!&!Caza,!A.!2004,!’Exploring!the!relationships!between!organizational! virtuousness!and!performance’,!American$Behavioral$Scientist,!vol.!47,!no.!6, pp.!766P90. Fernando,!M.,!Dharmage,!S.!&!Almeida,!S.!2008,!’Ethical!ideologies!of!senior!Australian!managers:!An! empirical!study’,!Journal$of$Business$Ethics,!vol.!82,!no.!1, pp.!145P55. Mackey,!J.!2011,!’What!conscious!capitalism!really!is,!California$Management$Review,!vol.!53,!no.!3, pp.! 83P90. Schwartz,!M.!2000,!’Why!ethical!codes!constitute!an!unconscionable!regression’,!Journal$of$Business$ Ethics,!vol.!23,!no.!2, pp.!173P84. Sisodia,!R.S.!2011,!’Conscious!capitalism:!A!better!way!to!win”’,!California$Management$Review,!vol.!53,! no.!3, pp.!98P108. WrayPBliss,!E.!2007,!’Ethics!in!work’,!in!D.!Knights!&!H.!Willmott!(eds),!Introducing$organizational$ behaviour$and$management,!Thomson!Learning,!pp.!506P33. Prescribed’readings’on’globalisation Banerjee,!S.B.!2008,!’Necrocapitalism’,!Organization$Studies,!vol.!29,!no.!12, pp.!1541P63. Chan,! J.,!Pun,!N.!&!Selden,!M.!2013,!’The!politics!of!global!production:!Apple,!Foxconn!and!China’s!new! working!class’,!New$Technology,$Work$and$Employment,!vol.!28,!no.!2, pp.!100P15. Gold,! S.,!Hahn,! R.!&! Seuring,! S.! 2013,! ‘Sustainable! supply! chain!management! in! “base! of! the! pyramid”! food!projects—a!path!to!triple!bottom!line!approaches!for!multinationals?’,!International$Business$ Review,!vol.!22,!no.!5, pp.!784P99. Morgan,!G.!2006,!’The!ugly!face:!Organizations!as!instruments!of!domination’,!in,!Images$of$organization,! Sage,!Thousand!Oaks,!CA,!pp.!291P336. Rego,!A.,!Clegg,!S.!&!Cunha,!M.! 2011,!’The! positive! power!of!character!strengths!and!virtues! for!global! leaders’,! in! K.S.! Cameron! &! G.! Spreitzer! (eds),! The$ Oxford$ Handbook$ of$ Positive$ Organizational$ Scholarship,!Oxford!University!Press,!Oxford,!UK. Zakaria,!N.,!Amelinckx,!A.!&!Wilemon,!D.! 2004,! ‘Working! together!apart?! Building!a!knowledgePsharing! culture!for!global!virtual!teams’,!Creativity$and$Innovation$Management,!vol.!13,!no.!1, pp.!15P29. Prescribed’readings’on’communication Barry,! B.! 2007,! ‘The! cringing! and! the! craven:! Freedom! of! expression! in,! around,! and! beyond! the! workplace’,!Business$Ethics$Quarterly,!vol.!17,!no.!2, pp.!263P96. Gagne,!J.F.,!Josserand,!E.!&!Clegg,!S.!2012,!’The!promise!of!seduction,!the!pleasures!or!commitment,!and! the!prospect!of!resistance!in!organizations’,!Organization$Science,!under!second!review. 9 Jack,!G.!2004,!’On!speech,!critique!and!protection’,!Ephemera,!vol.!4,!no.!2, pp.!121P34. Klein,!N.!2000,!’The!branding!of!learning’,!in,!No$logo:$Taking$aim$at$the$brand$bullies,!Picador,!New!York,! pp.!87P105.! Watson,! T.J.! 1995,! ‘Rhetoric,! discourse! and! argument! in! organizational! sense!making:! A! reflexive! tale’,! Organization$Studies,!vol.!16,!no.!5, pp.!805P21. Whitney, D. 1998, ‘Let’s change the subject and change our organization: An appreciative inquiry approach to organization change’, Career Development International, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 314-319. Prescribed’readings’on’knowledge’and’learning Cunha,!J.V.!&!Cunha,!M.P.!2001,!’Brave!new!(paradoxical)!world:!Structure!and!improvisation!in!virtual! teams’,!Strategic$Change,!vol.!10,!no.!6, pp.!337P47. Josserand,!E.!2004,!‘Cooperation!within!Bureaucracies:!Are!Communities!of!Practice!an!Answer?’,! M@n@gement,!vol.!7,!no.!3,pp.!307P339. Lee,!F.,!Caza,!A.,!Edmondson,!A.!&!Thomke,!S.!2003,!’New!knowledge!creation!in!organizations’,!in!K.S.! Cameron,!J.E.!Dutton!&!R.E.!Quinn!(eds),!Positive$organizational$scholarship:$Foundations$of$a$new$ discipline,!BerrettPKoehler,!San!Francisco,!CA,!pp.!194P206. Wenger,!E.C.!&!Snyder,!W.M.!2000,!’Communities!of!practice:!The!organizational!frontier’,!Harvard$ Business$Review,!vol.!78,!no.!1, pp.!139P46. Weick,!K.E.!&!Westley,!F.!1999,!’Affirming!an!oxymoron’,!in!S.R.!Clegg,!C.!Hardy!&!W.R.!Nord!(eds),! Managing$organizations:$Current$issues,!Sage,!London,!pp.!190P208. Prescribed’readings’on’innovation,’change’and’rationality Birkinshaw, J. & Gibson, C. 2004, ‘Building ambidexterity into an organization’, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 45, pp. 47-55. Brown, T. 2008, ‘Design thinking’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 86, no. 6, p. 84. Collins, D. 2006, ‘Assaying the ‘advice industry’’, Culture and Organization, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 139-52. Comtois, E., Denis, J.-L. & Langley, A. 2004, ‘Rhetorics of efficiency, fashion and politics hospital mergers in Quebec’, Management Learning, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 303-20. Harris, M. 2006, ‘Technology, innovation and post-bureaucracy: the case of the British Library”’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 19 no. 1, pp.80 – 92 Josserand, E., Teo, S. & Clegg, S. 2006, ‘From bureaucratic to post-bureaucratic: The difficulties of transition’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 54-64. Morgan, G. & Spicer, A. 2009, ‘Critical approaches to organizational change’, in M. Alvesson, T. Bridgman & H. Willmott (eds), The oxford handbook of critical management studies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 251-266. Wray Bliss, E. 2003, ‘Quick fixes, management culture and drug culture: Excellence and ecstasy, BPR and brown’, Culture and Organization, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 161-76. Please! note! that! most! of! these! articles/readings! can! be! accessed! via! ePreadings by! going! to! the! UTS! Library!website!and!typing!21129!into!the!searchPbar.! ASSESSMENT!AND!EXPECTATIONS A central!aim!for this!subject!is!to develop!your!skills!in!critical!and!analytical!thinking! 10 within!the!context!of!management!and!organisations.!A!fundamental!mechanism! through!which!such!thinking!is!developed!and!demonstrated!is!through!writing:! particularly!in!the!format!of!an!extended!academic!essay. GUIDANCE!ON!THE!REQUIRED!FORMAT!OF!THE!ACADEMIC!ESSAYS An!academic!essay!must!have: 1. An!explicit!argument!that!answers!a!basic!premise or!question: An!academic!essay!is!not!merely!a!summary!of!what!has!already!been!written!on!a! subject.!It!is, instead, a!presentation!of your!argument,!supported!by!academic!sources,! on!the!specific!question!set.!You!should!tell!the!reader!in!your!Introduction!very!clearly! what!your!answer!will!be!and!tell!them!how!your!essay!is!to!be!structured!to!present! your!answer.! For!example,!if!you!had!been!asked!a!question!on!whether!strong!management!can! prevent!fraudulent!business!practices,!your!opening!sentence!might!look!something!like! this:!‘In!this!essay!I!am!going!to!argue!that!fraudulent!business!practices!happen!because! of,!not!despite,!‘strong!management’.!I!am!going!to!suggest!that,!in!part,!the!pressure! put!upon!employees!by!their!managers!can!generate!a!culture!where!corners!are!cut!and! proper!checks!and!balances!are!not!carried!out.!I!conclude!that!stronger!management,! therefore,!may!not!be!the!solution!to!ending!corporate!fraud’.! 2. An!argument!that!has!a!clear,!logical!structure:! Having!told!the!reader!in!the!Introduction!explicitly!what!your!answer!to!the!question!is,! your!essay!should!be!logically!structured!to!develop!your!argument.!Organise!the!main! part!of!your!essay!into!three or!four sections.!Tell!the!reader!in!your!Introduction!what! these!sections!are,!and!link!these!sections!to!your!overall!argument.!Remind!the!reader! at!the!start!of!each!new!section!how!the!argument!is!progressing.!For!further!details!on! developing!a!critical!review!and!writing!assessments!see!the!following!links:! • Critical!review:!http://www.elssa.uts.edu.au/resources/research/critical.html! • Guide!to!writing!assessments:! http://www.business.uts.edu.au/teaching/guide/guide.pdf! 3. Evidence!of!substantial!and!relevant!reading:! To!pass!Assessment!1!your!essay!must!provide!at!least!6 references and!for!essay!2!you! must!provide!at!least!8,!making!extensive!use!of!the:! • the!readings/articles!listed in!the!‘tutorial!guidelines!and!readings’ • other! pertinent references!given!to!you!in!lectures • relevant!ideas!from!the!recommended!text!book. 4. A!Conclusion:! All!work!needs!to!have!a!conclusion!that!summarises!the!arguments!put!forward!in!your! 11 essay!and!how!these!arguments!have!answered!the!question(s) set.!Have!conviction!in! your!arguments.!!!Avoid!conclusions!that!end!with!‘it!depends’!or!‘this!needs!more! research’.! 5. References: An!academic!essay!must!be!supported!by!many!references!to!published!academic!work.! For!this!subject!your!main!references!must!be!the!tutorial!readings!and!additional! readings!listed!in!the!tutorial!guide.!Be!sure!to!acknowledge!fully!any!references!or! quotes!you!have!used!using!the!Harvard!UTS!reference!style:!e.g.!(Roberts,!1984).!Further! information!on!the!Harvard UTS reference!style!is!found!in!the!Faculty!of!Business!Guide! to!Writing!Assignments!available!online:! http://www.lib.uts.edu.au/help/referencing/harvardPutsPreferencingPguide.!Your!essay! must!also!have!a Reference!list,!which!is!an!alphabetical!list!of!the!full!publication!details! of!all!the!items!you!have!explicitly!referenced!in!your!work, referenced!according!to! Harvard!UTS!conventions (i.e.!do!not!use!bullet!points!for!your!reference!list and!ensure! that!you!use!a!hanging!indent!– with!the!first line!flush!left!with!the!margin!and subsequent!lines!indented!the!same!width!as!a!paragraph!indent). Examples!of!essay!introductions/paragraphs The!following!sample!essay!introductory!paragraphs!were!written!by!Professor!Edward!Wray! Bliss!for!MPO, and!are!provided!ONLY!to!illustrate!how!to!write!your!introduction.!These! paragraphs!are!NOT!based!on!the!essay!questions. Example!1: In!this!essay,!I!am!going!to!argue!that!work!can!certainly!be!a!source!of!satisfaction!and!joy!for! individuals.!Indeed,!as!I!demonstrate!in!Section!One,!by!drawing!on!Rosen!(1988),!Clegg!et!al! (2008)!and!others,!managers!of!modern!corporations!are!explicitly!encouraged!to!design!the! workplace!and!motivate!employees!so!that!these!employees!find!satisfaction!and!enjoyment!at! work.!However,!work!is!also!a!source!of!dissatisfaction!and!suffering!too!and!I!draw!upon!Jackall! (1988),!Knights!and!Roberts!(1982),!and!Morgan!(2006)!in!Section!Two!to!show!the!anxiety,! subordination!and!domination!that!may!also!describe!the!experience!of!work!for!managerial!and! nonPmanagerial!employees!alike.!Rather!than!leave!the!question!here,!in!Section!Three!I!attempt! to!explore,!conceptually,!why!work!produces!such!experiences!and!emotions!for!individuals.! Drawing!upon!Jackson!and!Carter!(2000)!and!O’Doherty!(2006), I!consider!the!strong!link! between!work!and!personal!identity.!Summarising!my!overall!arguments!in!the!Conclusion!I! illustrate,!with!the!example!of!Ackroyd!and!Crowdy!(1990),!just!how!complex!the!relationship! between!identity,!work,!and!an!individual’s!striving!for!satisfaction!and!personal!meaning!can!be. 12 Example!2: In!this!essay,!I!am!going!to!argue!that!it!is!important!to!study!management!and!organisation! critically!for!two!key!reasons.!First,!it!is!important!to!do!so!because!the!scope!and!reach!of! management!and!organisation!is!such!that!it!affects!all!aspects!of!our!social,!economic!and! cultural!life.!Second,!because!the!controls!that!exist!at!present!in!large!commercial!organisations! may!not!be!sufficient!to!prevent!negative!effects!occurring!in!each!of!these!contexts.!In!Section! One!I!shall!demonstrate!the!first!point!with!reference!both!to!the!role!of!management!and! organisation!in!the!current!global!economic!crisis!and!also!through!discussing!the!writings!of! Morgan!(2006)!and!Klein!(2001), explore the!effects!and!outcomes!of!corporate!power!in! different!spheres.!In!Section!Two,!I!shall!use!Milgram’s!(1974)!experiments!on!obedience!and! authority!and!Jackall’s!(1988)!study!of!corporate!management,!to!argue!that!there!are!processes! at!work!in!large!organisations!that!can!inhibit!employees,!and!even!senior!managers,!from! reflecting!upon!and!being!responsible!for!their!organisation’s!behaviour.!These!two!points,!I! suggest,!make!it!imperative!that!we!look!critically!at!management!and!organisation.!In!the!final! section!of!this!essay,!I!shall!consider!just!what!‘looking!critically’!means.!I!will!argue,!in! opposition!to!Parker!(2002),!that!being!critical!in!this!context!is!not!the!same!as!being!‘against! management’,!but!is!instead!a!commitment!to!better!organisation!and!better!management,!a! commitment!to!an!idea!of!organisation!where!its!powerful!potential,!as!envisaged!by!Knights! and!Roberts!(1982),!is!realised. Guidelines!for!submitting!assessments!using!‘Turnitin’ Your!essays must!be!submitted!electronically!using the!‘Turnitin’!program on!UTSOnline! (under!the!assignment!tab!on!the!MPO!page)!by!9pm!on!the!due!date.!Essays!submitted! late!will!lose!an!automatic!10!marks!per!day. Turnitin!will also!produce!a!plagiarism!report that!will!be!available!to!your!tutor!when! they!mark!your!work.!The!report!will indicate!any passages!in!your!essay!that!are!not! original.!You!are!welcome!to!submit!earlier!versions!of!your!essay!to!Turnitin!to!help!you! to!modify!your!essay.!The!second!time!you!submit!your!essay!to!the!system,!however,!it! will!be!at!least!24!hours!before!Turinitin!will!give!you!your!report.! As!a!guide,!if!your!overall!Turnitin score!is!over!25%,!please!ensure!that!you!revise!your! essay.!If!you!do!not!revise,!you!could!face!severe!penalties!and!may!be!referred!to!the! Dean!of!Teaching!and!Learning. You!must!not!submit!anybody!else’s!essays!except!your!own!to!Turnitin!for!any!reason.! Also,!please!do!not,!under!any!circumstances,!think!that!you!can!present!somebody! else’s!unreferenced!writing!in!your!essay!as!your!own!– whether!this!is!from!previous! student’s!essays,!material!you!have!found!on!the!web,!or!elsewhere.!The!penalties!for! plagiarism!are!extremely!severe!and!all!cases!will!be!referred!to!the!Dean!of!Teaching! and!Learning. 13 GRADING!ASSESSMENT Your!assignments!will!be!graded!according!to!the!criterion!indicated!in!the!marking!rubrics!on! pages!15P18!below. When!assessing!your!essays, each!of!the!criteria!considered!P along!with!your! understanding!of!the!subject, lectures!and!readings, and!your!ability!for!critical,!questioning! thought.! In!addition!to!the!above!instructions!and!guidelines,!your!tutors!will talk!you!through!the!process! of!assessment!and!will!provide feedback!on!your!two!assessment!submissions. Grade!categories High!Distinction! 85!per!cent!and!above Distinction! 75!per!cent!to!84!per!cent Credit! 65!per!cent!to!74!per!cent Pass 50!per!cent!to!64!per!cent Fail!(Z) Less!than!50!per!cent! Please!see!the!UTS!Guide!to!Writing!Assignments!for!full!details!on!these!grade!categories.!All! forms!of!assessment!must!be!attempted!and!an!overall!mark!of!50%!or!more!must!be!achieved! to!pass!this!course. EXTENSIONS!AND!LATE!ASSIGNMENTS Essays!submitted!after!the!due!time/date!will!incur!late!penalties!as!listed!below.!Late! submissions!will!not!incur!the!late!penalties!listed,!only if!the!tutor!or!Subject!Coordinator!has! granted!a!formal!extension!of!time.!This!extension!should!be!approved!BEFORE!the!submission! deadline!where!possible!and!will!only!be!approved!in!exceptional!circumstances (normally!on! grounds!of!ill!health!or!misadventure).!Work!submitted!more!than!5!days!after!the!stated! submission!date!will!not!be!accepted!for!assessment!unless!the!Subject!Coordinator, on!receipt! of!a!Special!Consideration!form, has!granted!a!formal!extension!of!time. Late!Penalties Depending!on!the!circumstances, the!Subject!Coordinator!may!apply!the!following!penalties:! • Up!to!1!day!late!(after!the!specified!deadline)!10%!late!reduction! • Up!to!2!days!late:!20%!late!reduction! • Up!to!3!days!late:!30%!late!reduction • Up!to!4!days!late:!40%!late!reduction! • Up!to!5!days!late:!50%!late!reduction! 14 • Over!5!days!late:!NOT!ACCEPTED The!10%!per!day!penalty!is!applied!to!the!mark!that!would!have!been!received!if!the!submission! had!been!on!time.!Any!work!submitted!after!5!days!would!need!a!Special!Consideration! document!to!be!accepted!for!assessment.!Students!cannot!expect!to!receive!verbal!or!written! feedback!for!late!work. Applying!for!extensions If!you!are!unable!to!submit!your!assignment!on!time due!to!illness!or!misadventure,!and!require! an!extension!of!less!than!one week,!you!should!submit!your!supporting!documentation!and! request!an!extension!by!emailing!your!tutor!well!before!the!handPin!deadline!of!the!essay.!If!you! require!more!than!a!onePweek extension, please!submit!an!application!for!‘Special! Consideration’!with!relevant!supporting!documentation attached, prior!to!the!due!date of!the! assessment.! The!extension!application!form!is!available!through!the!Student!Administration!Offices!or!may!be! downloaded!at:!http://www.sau.uts.edu.au/forms/index.html REMARKING To!maintain!consistency!between!the!tutorials,!the!coordinators!moderate!the!marks!prior!to! releasing!the!marked!scripts!back!to!the!students.!However,!if!you!have!concerns!regarding!your! marked!assessment,!please!email!your!tutor!for!an!appointment!to!discuss!your!concerns.! Before!meeting!with!your!tutor,!you!must!email!your!tutor!a!detailed!request!explaining! precisely!which!criteria!of!the!grading!sheet!and!elements!of!feedback!you!disagree!with or!have! questions!on.!Your!tutors!will!not!be!able!to!discus

November 6, 2015

Algorithms and Models for Network Analysis and Design

Algorithms and Models for Network Analysis and Design R. G. Addie July 18, 2011 ii Contents Front Matter vi Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi List of Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii List of Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Preface 1 1 Overview of Network Analysis and Design 3 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 The Network Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Examples of Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.1 A Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.2 A Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.3 A School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.4 A University Campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.5 A State-wide Retail Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3.6 A National Internet Service Provider (ISP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3.7 A National Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4 Modeling and Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.5 Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.6 Requirements Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.7 Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.8 Equipment Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.9 Design (quantities, placement, and routing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2 Reliability 17 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.1.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2 Analysis of Network Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.1 An Enumeration Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.2 Another Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.3 Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.3.1 Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.3.2 Definition of Layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3.3 A Transmission Facility Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3.4 SONET and the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.3.5 Add-drop Multiplexors and Network Reconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.4 Design for Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 iii iv CONTENTS 2.4.1 Design of a Network of Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.5 WDM Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2.5.1 Networks of WDM Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.5.2 Reliable Routing for WDM Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.6 Further Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.7 Closing Comments and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3 Performance Analysis and Modeling 45 3.1 Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.1.1 Mathematical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.1.2 Probability Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.1.3 Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.1.4 Conditional Mean and Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.1.5 The Gaussian Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.1.6 Stochastic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3.1.7 Statistics of Stochastic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.2 The Causes of Loss and Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.2.1 The Causes of Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.2.2 The Causes of Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3.3 Traffic Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.3.1 Randomness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.3.2 Poisson Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.3.3 Telephone Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.3.4 Gaussian Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.3.5 Long-range Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.3.6 Fractional Brownian Motion and Fractional Gaussian Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.3.7 The Poisson-Pareto Burst Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.4 Application of the Gaussian Traffic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.4.1 A Simple Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.4.2 The Normal Loss Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.4.3 The Central Limit Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.4.4 Traffic with Infinite Variance∗ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.5 Analysis of Loss and Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.5.1 Queueing Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 3.5.2 Loss Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.5.3 End-to-end Control of Traffic in TCP/IP networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.5.4 Dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3.5.5 Differentiated Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 3.5.6 Estimation of Performance of Separate Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.5.7 Benefits of Differentiation of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.6 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.6.1 Definition of Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.6.2 Analysis of Security Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 3.6.3 A Simple Model of Security and Its Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.7 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.8 Closing Comments and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4 Measurements 91 4.1 Traffic Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.1.1 Measuring the variance or standard deviation of traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.1.2 Interrelationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.1.3 Connections and Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.2 Estimation of Traffic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 CONTENTS v 4.2.1 Estimation of mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.2.2 Estimation of variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.2.3 Estimation of the Hurst Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.2.4 Estimation of variance (part II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3 Performance Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.1 Measurement of Loss and Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.3.2 Reliability and Security Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5 Routing and Control 107 5.1 Routing and control in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 5.1.1 Finding the shortest path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 5.1.2 Subnetworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5.1.3 Routing Domains in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5.1.4 Router Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5.1.5 Network Address Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5.1.6 Router Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 5.1.7 Virtual LANs (vLANs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 5.1.8 IP Version 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.1.9 Load Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5.1.10 End-to-end Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.2 Routing in Telephone and ATM Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.2.1 Connection Admission Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.2.2 Routing and CAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.2.3 State-based Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.3 New Approaches to Congestion Control in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.3.1 Congestion and its Avoidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.3.2 Random Early Discard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5.3.3 DiffServ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5.3.4 Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 5.3.5 Random Early Dropping of In and Out Packets (RIO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 5.4 New Approaches to Routing in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 5.4.1 Layered Routing – MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 5.4.2 Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.6 Closing Comments and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 6 Requirements Analysis 133 6.1 Traffic Streams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 6.2 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 6.2.1 Tabulation of Demand for Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6.3 Growth and Forecasting of future traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.4 Closing Comments and Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 7 Architecture 141 7.1 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 7.2 Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 7.2.1 Hierarchy in Telephone Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 7.2.2 Hierarchy in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 7.3 Networking Philosophies and their Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 7.3.1 Philosophy of TCP/IP Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 7.3.2 Philosophy of ATM Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7.3.3 Philosophy of SONET/SDH Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 7.3.4 Cross-fertilization of ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 7.3.5 Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 vi CONTENTS 7.4 Security Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 7.4.1 Key Concepts in Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7.4.2 Public key encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 7.4.3 Kerberos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.4.4 Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.4.5 IPSEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.4.6 SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7.4.7 Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 7.4.8 Secure Shell (SSH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 7.4.9 Key Distribution and Certificate Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 7.4.10 Security of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7.5 Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 7.6 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 8 Equipment Choice 167 8.1 Categories of Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 8.2 A Cost Model of Switching and Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 8.3 Switching and Routing Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8.3.1 Layer 2 Switching Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 8.3.2 Layer 1 Switching Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 9 Design 177 9.1 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.1.1 Minimal Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.1.2 Maximum Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 9.1.3 Linear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 9.1.4 Integer Programming and Mixed Integer Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 9.1.5 Non-linear Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 9.1.6 Travelling Salesman Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 9.2 Present Value Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 9.3 Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 9.4 Design for Service Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 9.5 Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 A Netml, A Language for Describing Networks and Traffic 203 A.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 A.2 Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 A.3 Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 A.4 Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 A.5 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 A.6 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 CONTENTS vii List of Examples Example 1.1 A Network where cost depends upon traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Example 1.2 A Network where cost depends distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Example 2.1 Signalling Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Example 2.2 Unavailability Calculation Using the Enumeration Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Example 2.3 The Parallel Serial Reduction Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Example 2.4 The method of the perfect middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Example 2.1 A Signalling Network (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Example 2.5 A Connection-oriented Packet Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Example 2.6 A network of SDH Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Example 2.7 Adding Two Nodes while Preserving Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Example 2.8 Large WDM Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Example 3.1 Variance of a Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Example 3.2 Calculation of a mean and variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Example 3.3 From Australia to Silicon Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Example 3.4 A Simple Gaussian traffic model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Example 3.5 Statistics of Bytes per packet for Uniform packet lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Example 3.6 Loss Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Example 3.7 Fractional Gaussian Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Example 3.8 The Poisson-Pareto Burst Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Example 3.9 Estimation of Different Performance for Different Classes of Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Example 3.10 Benefits of Differentiated Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Example 3.11 A More Secific Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Example 3.12 A Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Example 3.13 A Laboratory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Example 3.14 A School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Example 3.15 A University Campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Example 3.16 A State-wide Retail Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Example 3.17 A National Internet Service Provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Example 3.18 A National Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Example 4.1 Telephone Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Example 4.2 Internet Traffic Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Example 4.3 Evaluation of a Security Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Example 5.1 Finding the shortest paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Example 5.2 Subnetworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Example 5.3 A Laboratory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Example 5.4 A School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Example 5.5 A Campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Example 5.6 A Statewide Retail Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Example 5.7 A National ISP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Example 6.1 Traffic Streams in a Campus Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Example 6.2 A Campus Traffic Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Example 7.1 N +1 Service Protection Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Example 7.2 Service Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Example 7.3 IP Over IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Example 7.4 Digital Signatures and Certificates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Example 7.5 Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Example 7.6 SPAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Example 7.7 Authority in PGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Example 7.8 Secure DNS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Example 7.9 Verisign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Example 7.10 Security in a Campus Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 viii CONTENTS Example 7.11 Layers in a National Carrier Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Example 8.1 The Cost of a download . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Example 8.2 Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) with TCP/IP over ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Example 8.3 IP over SONET / SDH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Example 8.4 Why ATM is used in Access Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Example 9.1 Find a Minimal Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Example 9.2 Shortest Path Problem as Linear Programming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Example 9.3 Dimensioning a Link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Example 9.4 Linking two Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Example 9.5 Major Network Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Example 9.6 Service Protection in a Campus Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Example 9.7 Design as Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Example 9.8 Design Optimization taking into account traffic variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Example 9.9 Design Optimization for Service Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 CONTENTS ix List of Exercises Exercise 1.1 Network Design – a Difficult Case? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Exercise 2.1 Availability expressed in minutes per year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Exercise 2.2 Analyze the reliability of a network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Exercise 2.3 Another network availability problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Exercise 2.4 Analyze the reliability of another network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Exercise 2.5 Availability Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Exercise 2.6 Design for Reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Exercise 2.7 Design for Reliability – Part II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Exercise 2.8 Design of SDH Ring Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Exercise 2.9 Wavelength Assignment for a 6 Node Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Exercise 3.1 Calculation of a variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Exercise 3.2 Using Ping to display Transmission Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Exercise 3.3 The Rate of a Gaussian Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Exercise 3.4 The distribution of file sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Exercise 3.5 A Simple Network, and its Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Exercise 3.6 Gaussian Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Exercise 3.7 Delay Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Exercise 3.8 Dimensioning a Simple Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Exercise 3.9 Dimensioning a Simple Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Exercise 3.10 The Benefits of Differential Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Exercise 3.11 Security Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Exercise 4.1 Packet Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Exercise 4.2 Use Ping and Traceroute to estimate performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Exercise 4.3 Use of Ping to measure link transmission speed, propagation delay, and throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Exercise 4.4 Set up MRTG . . . . . . . .

November 6, 2015

Autism Spectrum

© 2015 Chen et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 2699–2709 Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Dovepress submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress 2699 Origi n al R esearch open access to scientific and medical research Open Access Full Text Article http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S87844 Motivation for everyday social participation in cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorder Yu-Wei Chen1 Anita C Bundy1 Reinie Cordier2 Yi-Ling Chien3 Stewart L Einfeld1,4 1 Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2 School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3 Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 4 Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine motivation for the contextual nature of motivations for social participation in cognitively able adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder, using self-determination theory as a theoretical framework. Methods: Fourteen Australians and 16 Taiwanese (aged 16–45 years) with Asperger’s syndrome and high functioning autism were asked to carry a device which prompted them seven times/day for 7 days, to record what they were doing, with whom, perceived difficulty and social reciprocity, and the reasons for engaging in a situation, which were then coded into degree of self-determination. Results: Multilevel analyses showed that participants were more likely to be self-determined while engaging in “solitary/parallel leisure” and “social activities” than in other types of activities. Interactions with “family members” and “casual/intimate friends” were also positively associated with self-determined motivation. Further, participants were more likely to perceive higher levels of being listened to during interaction with casual/intimate friends than in interaction with other people. Global social anxiety served as a moderator for their perceptions of difficulty and social reciprocity during social engagement. Conclusion: The findings highlight the context-dependent motivations for social engagement of cognitively able individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Keywords: autism, real-life experience, social motivation, social interaction, ecological momentary assessment Introduction Cognitively able adolescents and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), such as those once diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome (AS) or high functioning autism, commonly have restricted social participation as a result of social and communication deficits.1–4 They frequently report social isolation and negative experiences in social situations, which may influence their motivation for social engagement. Whether individuals with ASD wish to engage socially (ie, possess social motivation) is controversial. Theory and research examining this question is inconclusive and the findings are at odds. The term “autism” is drawn from the Greek word, “autos”, meaning “self”. The name was first applied to children who were socially isolated, seemingly by choice. Thus, the popular belief that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to engage socially. Recently, Chevallier et al proposed a social motivation theory of autism, describing it as an extreme case of diminished social motivation.5 Other researchers studying social motivation concluded that children with ASD display less desire for interaction than typically developing peers,6 a finding explicitly and directly gleaned from asking participants to view pictures of people taken from the side view and indicate whether they wanted to interact with those individuals. Correspondence: Yu-Wei Chen Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, 75 East Street, Lidcombe, NSW 2141, Australia Tel +61 2 9351 9798 Email yu-wei.chen@sydney.edu.au Journal name: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Article Designation: Original Research Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Running head verso: Chen et al Running head recto: Motivation for social participation in ASD DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S87844 Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2700 Chen et al The results of other studies refute the poor social motivation hypothesis. For example, Deckers et al asked children with ASD to indicate whether they would like to get acquainted with individuals presented in profile pictures of faces.6 If they wanted to know a person, they pulled on a joystick and turned the photo toward them. If they did not want to meet the person, they pushed on the joystick which turned the picture away (ie, Face Turn Approach-Avoidance Task).7 Unlike asking them explicitly, using this implicit approach, Deckers et al found that children with ASD were inclined to express a desire to approach others. Other researchers8,9 have used electroencephalography with cognitively able children with ASD, finding greater left than right anterior cortical activity while at rest, a pattern associated with a disposition to approach socially.10 A third hypothesis is that social motivation in individuals with ASD is context dependent. That is, individuals are motivated to engage socially in specific contexts and not in others. For example, using experience sampling methodology (ESM), Hintzen et al found that cognitively able adults with ASD chose to spend more time with familiar people than did adults without ASD.11 In addition, we found that cognitively able adolescents and adults with ASD reported enjoying everyday social situations when they were conversing with friends compared with other people or being alone (Chen et al, unpublished data, 2015). Self-determination theory (SDT),12–14 which focuses on how social contexts affect engagement, may help understand the contextual nature of motivations for social interaction in people with ASD. Instead of treating motivation as a unitary construct, SDT addresses the orientation/type of motivation which concerns the reasons or goals that give rise to an action.14 According to SDT, motivations can be self-determined in situations that individuals find compelling (ie, intrinsically motivated) or that they think are good for them (ie, identified regulation). In contrast, individuals sometimes perform behaviors to satisfy external demands (ie, external regulation), or to avoid guilt or attain recognition (ie, introjected regulation); both are extrinsically motivated. However, amotivated behaviors occur in situations where an individual lacks a reason for or an intention to act. SDT suggests that orientation of motivation can be predicted by the degree to which an action satisfies basic psychological needs. Deci and Ryan described three basic psychological needs inherent to all human beings:12 autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Autonomy comprises feelings of volition and self-ownership. Competence refers to the experience of effectance and mastery. Relatedness is the need to feel connected and experience reciprocal care and love. Human needs play a mediating role between the actions of individuals and the social context.12–14 Deci and Ryan suggested that participation in a supportive social environment is crucial to satisfaction of psychological needs; which, in turn, facilitates self-determined behaviors and positive experiences. Our previous findings that cognitively able adolescents and young adults with ASD enjoyed social interactions with certain contexts suggests that those interactions met basic needs. In contrast, Whitehouse et al found that adolescents with AS have little intrinsic motivation for establishing friendships, probably because their needs are not met.15 The lack of clarity around the motivation for social participation of adolescents and adults with ASD may, in part, reflect differences in methodology. While we have used ESM16,17 to explore social experiences in everyday contexts, most previous researchers have used retrospective interview or global self-rating scales. For example, Whitehouse et al15 used the Friendship Motivation Questionnaire,18 which required participants to indicate how true statements were of them. This task is highly cognitive, requiring aggregation of experiences over time.19 Retrospective responses are easily contaminated by memory bias20 or by the emotional states elicited by reflective questioning.19 More importantly, retrospective and one-time reporting are divorced from real life contexts and experiences of social participation. Thus, the low motivation for social engagement identified by Whitehouse et al15 may not truly reflect their social desires in everyday life. ESM is an ecological momentary assessment used to identify dynamic relationships between subjective experiences and everyday contexts.19 ESM allows participants to report their actions, momentary thoughts, and feelings in real time, across natural settings and over a period of time. This method enables to identify fluctuations in perceptions about everyday experiences within a person.21 As such, it is suited to capturing the variability inherent to the ASD population. Unlike single-case studies, data collected with ESM can be aggregated and analyzed at within- and between-person levels simultaneously.21 In addition, compared with retrospective approaches, data collected through ESM have greater ecological validity and are less subject to recall or social appropriateness bias.16,19 Further, ESM survey questions are short, straightforward, and address only the immediate context, which involves less cognitive demand than retrospective methods. Recent research has established the validity and usability of ESM with the ASD population.11,22–26 The purpose of the present study was to examine motivation for social participation in everyday contexts among cognitively able adolescents and adults with ASD. We used SDT as a theoretical framework and ESM as a methodology. To examine the extent to which the basic needs of competence and relatedness were met in everyday social experiences, we Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2701 Motivation for social participation in ASD investigated perceptions of difficulty and social reciprocity. Given the heterogeneity of people with ASD and our previous findings (Chen et al, unpublished data, 2015), we examined severity of ASD symptomology and global social anxiety as moderators of motivation for and perceptions of everyday participation. In addition, because we had found that Australian females with ASD are more socially active than Australian males and Taiwanese people (Chen et al, unpublished data, 2015), we also examined whether participant group (Australian females vs other people) served as a moderator. Methods The study had approval from the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee, the Autism Spectrum Australia Research Approval Committee, and the Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). All participants provided written consent, and parents provided additional consent for participants younger than 18. Because the study began prior to release of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 5th edition,27 we used DSM-IV criteria for ASD diagnosis. Participants Thirty-two individuals with AS or high functioning autism agreed to participate: 14 Australians (four males) were recruited via research flyers circulated around Australia and 18 Taiwanese (14 males) were referred by psychiatrists employed at NTUH. All individuals met the following inclusion criteria: 1) a formal diagnosis from a psychiatrist or psychologist using the DSM-IV criteria;3 2) aged between 16 and 45 years, and 3) having sufficient reading comprehension to understand the surveys. Reading comprehension of Australian participants was confirmed by standard scores of $85 on the Reading Comprehension Subtest of Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-3rd edition.28 Because there are no equivalent reading assessments for Taiwanese adults, the reading comprehension of Taiwanese participants was confirmed by a verbal intelligence quotient $70 on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.29 No participants had a diagnosis of intellectual disability, neurological or other developmental disorders (eg, cerebral palsy). In order for their data to be included, participants had to have completed at least 17 of 49 surveys (.33%) in accordance with suggestions from previous researchers.30 Data from two Taiwanese males were excluded from the final sample. One discontinued participation after encountering technical issues with the iOS device. The second completed only 15 surveys in 7 days; the minimum requirement was 17 surveys (see Procedure). Thus, the final sample included data from 14 Australians (four males; aged 16–43 years [mean =24.8, standard deviation {SD} =9.0]) and 16 Taiwanese (12 males; aged 19–45 years [mean =27.8, SD =6.3]). In the final sample, the main diagnosis was AS (n=12 [86%] in the Australian group and n=13 [81%] in the Taiwanese group; Table 1). Half of the Australian participants Table 1 Characteristics of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Characteristicsa Australia (n=14) Taiwan (n=16) Sex Male Female 4 (28.6) 10 (71.4) 12 (75.0) 4 (25.0) ASD diagnosis HFA AS 2 (14.3) 12 (85.7) 3 (18.8) 13 (81.3) Comorbid diagnoses ADHD Depression Anxiety OCD Depression and anxiety Depression and anxiety and OCD 1 (7.1) 1 (7.1) 1 (7.1) 0 3 (21.4) 1 (7.1) 2 (12.5) 0 0 2 (12.5) 0 0 Age in years 24.8 (9.0) 27.8 (6.3) Total standard scores of SRS 77.7 (6.5) 70.6 (8.7) Total raw scores of SIAS 46.0 (14.2) 44.1 (17.3) Reading comprehension abilities (standard scores)b 107.3 (9.4) 106.2 (13.1) Living status Alone With partner/children With parents/siblings With others 2 (14.3) 3 (21.4) 6 (42.9) 3 (21.4) 1 (6.3) 0 15 (93.8) 0 Relationship status Single Boyfriend/girlfriend Partner/married Separated/divorced Other 9 (64.3) 1 (7.1) 3 (21.4) 0 1 (7.1) 12 (75.0) 3 (18.8) 0 1 (6.3) 0 Completed education level High school Certificate Diploma Associate’s degree Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree 4 (28.6) 5 (35.7) 2 (14.3) 0 1 (7.1) 2 (14.3) 4 (25.0) 0 0 1 (6.3) 9 (56.3) 2 (12.5) Current employment/education status Student Unemployed Part-time Full-time Volunteer work 7 (50.0) 1 (7.1) 2 (14.3) 3 (21.4) 1 (7.1) 4 (25.0) 7 (43.8) 1 (6.3) 4 (25.0) 0 Notes: a Count (%) for categorical data, mean (standard deviation) for continuous data. bMeasured by Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-3rd Edition for Australian participants and a verbal IQ for Taiwanese sample. Abbreviations: HFA, high-functioning autism; AS, Asperger’s syndrome; ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; OCD, obsessive–compulsive disorder; SRS, Social Responsiveness Scale; SIAS, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale; IQ, intelligence quotient. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2702 Chen et al and a quarter of the Taiwanese participants had concomitant mental health diagnoses (eg, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive disorder). Regarding current education and employment status, seven (50%) Australians and four (25%) Taiwanese were still students. One (7%) Australian and seven (44%) Taiwanese were unemployed. ESM We developed an ESM survey to explore what participants were doing (everyday activities, Figure 1 for options) and who they were communicating with (social interaction conditions, Figure 2 for options). Each time they were signaled, participants chose the main activity in which they were engaged and as many social partners as were relevant. They indicated why they were doing the activity (from a list) and their experiences of: a) difficulty of activity engagement, and b) social reciprocity during interactions. Social reciprocity included questions about being listened to (do you think they were really listening to what you had to say?) and caring about others (did you care about what they were doing/ saying?). Participants responded “yes” or “no” to perceived difficulty and from “0” (not at all) to “10” (very much) for perceived social reciprocity. The ESM survey was loaded to the Participation in Everyday Life Survey Application (PIEL App), an ESM platform designed for iOS devices.31 The PIEL App prompted participants to complete the ESM surveys, time stamped the responses, and stored the data. Measures of ASD severity and global social anxiety The Social Responsiveness Scale – Second Edition (SRS-2)32 was used to evaluate the severity of ASD symptoms. In Taiwan, the Chinese version of SRS33 was used. The SRS-2 is a parent/teacher-report or self-report questionnaire for individuals 2.5 years or older. In this study, participants who were aged 19 years and above completed the “selfreport version”. Parents of younger participants under 19 completed the “school-age version”. The SRS-2 comprises 65 items organized into five subscales: social awareness, social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Items are rated on a 4-point Likert scale from 0 (not true), to 3 (almost always true). Total standard scores of 60 or higher are clinically significant and indicate deficiencies in social reciprocal behavior that may interfere with everyday social interactions. The SRS-2 has evidence of sound psychometric properties when used with adults.32,34 To evaluate the severity of global social anxiety in Australian and Taiwanese participants, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS)35 and the Chinese version of the SIAS36 were used. The 20-item self-report scale measures experiences in social situations associated with social anxiety according to DSM-IV criteria.3 Participants rated the items using a 5-point scale (0= “not at all characteristic of me” to 4= “extremely characteristic of me”). Higher total scores indicate greater levels of social anxiety. The SIAS and Chinese version of the SIAS have good evidence of reliability and validity across clinical and community populations.35,36 Procedure We provided participants with an iPod Touch or delivered the PIEL App to their iOS device (ie, iPod Touch or iPhone). We conducted a 30- to 60-minute individual training session with each participant on the use of the PIEL App and the iOS device. The training was held at a university campus, outpatient clinic of the hospital or a quiet public place (eg, a library). During the training, participants also completed the SIAS and the SRS-2. Parents of participants under 19 received the school-age version of SRS-2 by mail. Australian participants took the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-3rd edition to ensure reading comprehension ability. Following training, participants carried the device for 7 consecutive days. The device prompted participants seven times each day at random intervals to respond to the same ESM survey. Each participant determined the available hours for sampling time by identifying their waking hours. They were instructed to answer as many surveys as possible but to ignore signals that occurred at inconvenient times (eg, when bathing). The survey became dormant if participants did not respond to a prompt within 2 minutes. Participants were encouraged to contact the first author directly if they required assistance. Data analysis We plotted the data for descriptive analysis. We coded activities into five types: “non-activity”, “productivity”, “solitary/ parallel leisure”, “social activities”, and “self-care” (Figure 1 for types). We coded reasons for engaging in activities into five levels based on degree of self-determination drawn from SDT:12 a) intrinsic motivation (I like it), b) three levels of extrinsic motivation: identified regulation (I am doing it for my own good); introjected regulation (I want people to like me; I want to look occupied), and external regulation (I have to), and c) amotivation (It’s just a habit; nothing else to do). For each participant, we calculated the proportion of each motivation associated with each activity and interaction Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2703 Motivation for social participation in ASD 3DUW FOXEELQJ VRFLDOL]LQJ 7DONLQJ WH[WLQJ SKRQH (OHFWURQLFJDPHV 5XQQLQJ MRJJLQJ ILWQHVV VSRUW 79 ILOP 5HDGLQJ ZULWLQJ PXVLF ZHE +RPHFKRUHV &ODVV ZRUN PHHWLQJ 6KRSSLQJ 3HUVRQDOFDUH (DWLQJ 2EVHUYLQJSHRSOH DFWLYLW ‘RLQJQRWKLQJ UHVWLQJ 1RQ DFWLYLW 6HOI FDUH 3URGXFWLYLW 6ROLWDU SDUDOOHO OHLVXUH 6RFLDODFWLYLWLHV 0HDQSURSRUWLRQLQHDFKDFWLYLW ,QWULQVLFPRWLYDWLRQ ,GHQWLILHGUHJXODWLRQ ,QWURMHFWHGUHJXODWLRQ ([WHUQDOUHJXODWLRQ $PRWLYDWLRQ Figure 1 Motivation for engagement in everyday activities. with different people. We also calculated the proportion of perceived difficulty and overall means of social reciprocity associated with each activity and interaction, respectively. Prior to calculating overall means, we centered each participant’s ratings at his or her mean to account for individual differences. ESM data have a hierarchical structure with multiple surveys (Level 1) nested within data from each participant (Level 2). We performed multilevel analyses to examine how motivation and perceptions were associated with everyday participation. Given that multilevel analysis takes into account the dependency of the surveys from the same Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2704 Chen et al 6LEOLQJ V 3DUHQW V JUDQG SDUHQW V )ULHQG V 3DUWQHU ERIULHQG JLUOIULHQG &ODVVPDWH V FROOHDJXH V &XVWRPHU V FOLHQW V 7HDFKHU FRDFK ERVV WKHUDSLVW 3HRSOHDWVFKRRO ZRUN &DVXDO LQWLPDWH IULHQGV )DPLOPHPEHUV 0HDQSURSRUWLRQLQHDFKVRFLDOLQWHUDFWLRQ VWDWH ,QWULQVLFPRWLYDWLRQ ,GHQWLILHGUHJXODWLRQ ,QWURMHFWHGUHJXODWLRQ ([WHUQDOUHJXODWLRQ $PRWLYDWLRQ Figure 2 Motivation for interaction with people. participant,37,38 the method is preferred over the conventional ordinary least squares approaches for ESM data.39,40 In addition, multilevel analysis allows examination of relationships between variables at different levels and also accounts for potential moderating effects of Level 2 variables on the relationships of Level 1 variables.37,38 Previous researchers suggested a minimum Level 2 sample size of 30 to achieve sufficient power.41,42 We examined associations between everyday activities and the dependent variables, “degree of self-determination” and “perceived difficulty”, in two multilevel logistic analyses. In each analysis, “non-activity”, “productivity”, “solitary/parallel leisure”, and “social activities” were the Level 1 independent variables and “self-care” was the reference. To examine source of motivation as a dependent variable in multilevel logistic analysis, the five motivation levels were coded as “relatively self-determined” (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation) or “relatively externally determined” (introjected regulation, external regulation, amotivation); the “relatively externally determined” was the reference. To examine perceived social reciprocity, we conducted two multilevel linear analyses with “being listened to” and “caring about others” as continuous dependent variables. Because participants were able to select multiple social partners in a single interaction, we coded each social partner as a binary (yes/no) variable: “no one”, “family members”, “casual/intimate friends”, or “people at school/work”. All the four types of social partners were included as Level 1 independent variables in the analysis of motivation. The analyses of perceived social reciprocity included only three independent variables: “family members”, “casual/intimate friends”, and “people at school/work” because social reciprocity requires the presence of a social partner. In each multilevel analysis, we simultaneously analyzed individual characteristics as Level 2 independent variables to examine their associations with motivation and perceived social reciprocity. These variables were severity of ASD (ie, total Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2705 Motivation for social participation in ASD standard scores of SRS-2), severity of global social anxiety (ie, total raw scores of SIAS), and participant group (Australian females vs other participants). SRS-2 and SIAS data were grand mean centered for comparisons across participants.37,38 To examine potential moderating effects of individual characteristics (severity of ASD, global social anxiety, and participant group), we added the interactions between Level 1 and Level 2 independent variables to the original multilevel analyses. These additional analyses helped identify whether the Level 2 independent variables moderated the relationships between Level 1 independent and dependent variables. To reduce model complexity and maximize stability, we removed cross-level interactions which showed no significant relationships to the dependent variable when establishing the final model.37,38 We used Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Modeling (HLM 6.08) software43 to perform the multilevel analyses. Associations between independent and dependent variables were evaluated through the estimation of the odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the multilevel logistic analysis, and a fixed regression coefficient (β) and standard errors for the multilevel linear analysis. Significance in cross-level interaction indicates a significant moderating effect of a Level 2 independent variable on the relationship between Level 1 independent and dependent variables. Results Participants completed an average of 38, of a possible 49 (average response rates: 77.6%), ESM surveys (SD =7, range =23–49), providing a total of 1,131 surveys. Overall, participants spent the majority of time engaging in activities related to “solitary/parallel leisure” (42.4%), followed by 25.0% in “productivity” (ie, home chores and class, work or meeting), and 12.2% in “non-activity”. They engaged infrequently (10.8%) in “social activities” and they did not interact with another person most of the time (71.6%). “Casual friends/an intimate friend” (11.4%) were the ones they mainly interact with when they engaged in conversation. Figure 1 shows that participants were most frequently intrinsically motivated to engage in social and solitary/ parallel leisure activities, except running/jogging/fitness/ sport where the behaviors were identified as regulated. Conversely, participants were frequently externally regulated (the least autonomous response) when they engaged in selfcare and productive activities. However, participants seldom perceived everyday activities as difficult. They described “productive activities” as difficult only 16.3% of the time, “social activities” 15.5% of the time, and “self-care” 10.5% of the time. Figure 2 shows that participants were intrinsically motivated to interact with family members and casual/intimate friends. However, they frequently perceived interaction with people at school/work as externally regulated. In terms of perceived social reciprocity, participants perceived relatively high levels of being listened to while interacting with family members (mean [M] =0.313, SD =1.139) and casual/intimate friends (M =0.281, SD =0.753) compared with people at school/work (M =0.004, SD =0.804). Further, they cared more about family members (M =0.345, SD =0.876) and casual/intimate friends (M =-0.035, SD =0.985) than people at school/work (M =-0.305, SD =0.736). Relationships of motivation and perception of difficulty with everyday activities Table 2 summarizes the results of the multilevel analyses of motivation and perceived difficulty of activities. Participants Table 2 Multilevel logistic analyses of self-determined motivation and perception of difficulty during the engagement in everyday activities (N=30, number of surveys =1,131) Variables Self-determined motivation Perception of difficulty OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value Level 1 Types of activity (vs self-care) Non-activity 1.24 (0.67–2.31) 0.50 0.52 (0.16–1.74) 0.29 Productivity 0.58 (0.33–1.04) 0.07 2.47 (1.01–6.06) ,0.05* Solitary/parallel leisure 4.15 (2.41–7.15) ,0.01** 0.80 (0.32–2.00) 0.62 Social activity 2.11 (1.10–4.08) ,0.05* 2.45 (0.93–6.44) 0.07 Level 2 ASD severity 1.05 (0.95–1.17) 0.34 1.10 (0.97–1.26) 0.15 Severity of global social anxiety 0.96 (0.91–1.01) 0.13 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 0.75 Australian females (vs others) 0.56 (0.14–2.35) 0.42 2.58 (0.57–11.83) 0.21 Notes: *P,0.05; **P,0.01. Abbreviations: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ASD, autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015:11 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress Dovepress 2706 Chen et al were more likely to be self-determined while engaging in “solitary/parallel leisure” and “social activities” than in other activities. However, Australian females displayed a weak relationship between self-determined motivation and solitary/ parallel leisure (OR =0.44, 95% CI =0.22–0.89). Regarding perceived difficulty, participants were more likely to report productive activities as difficult than other activities. Participants with higher levels of global social anxiety had stronger relationships between perceived difficulty and engagement in productive activities (OR =1.05, 95% CI =1.01–1.09) and social activities (OR =1.08, 95% CI =1.03–1.14). Relationships between motivation and perceived social reciprocity and types of social interaction Multilevel analyses in Table 3 showed that participants were more likely to be self-determined while interacting with family members and casual/intimate friends than with other social partners. Further, they were more likely to perceive higher levels of being listened to during interaction with casual/ intimate friends. Upon close inspection, global social anxiety moderated the relationship between thought of caring about others and interaction with casual/intimate friends (β=-0.10, standard error =0.02, P,0.01). That is, participants with higher levels of global social anxiety were less likely to care about casual/intimate friends while interacting with them. Discussion We explored the motivation for social engagement in everyday contexts among cognitively able adolescents and adults with ASD through the lens of SDT, using ESM as a methodology. We investigated the controversy whether cognitively able adolescents and adults with ASD desire to engage socially. Three possible perspectives have been proposed: they prefer not to engage socially;5,6 they wish to engage socially but express that desire more implicitly than explicitly;6,8,9 and the desire for social engagement is context specific as suggested by SDT.12–14 Our findings support the latter view. In line with SDT,12,14 the results suggest that cognitively able adolescents and adults with ASD were motivated to interact in situations where they felt competent and experienced social reciprocity. Specifically, they were motivated to engage in social activities where they did not experience significant difficulty. Further, cognitively able adolescents and adults with ASD were motivated to interact with friends and perceived their friends as listening to them during interactions. These findings indicate that social activities and interactions with friends are the everyday contexts that support basic psychological needs and facilitate motivation for engagement. Consequently, they reported enjoying these social situations (Chen

November 6, 2015

EVALUATION OF PLATO’S ANALOGY OF THE RING OF GYGES.

Consider the ââ?¬Å”Ring of Gygesââ?¬Â? argument, Platoââ?¬â?¢s thought experiment gives us a very particular view of human nature. The thesis that what is ethically right to do is what advantages a particular individual is known as ethical egoism.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,Do you want a similar Paper? Click Here To Get It From Our Writing Experts At A Reasonable Price.

November 5, 2015

ECOLOGICAL ETHICS

Define deep ecology or ecological ethics. What are the consequences of taking an ecological ethic seriously?,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,Do you want a similar Paper? Click Here To Get It From Our Writing Experts At A Reasonable Price.

November 4, 2015

Reframing early childhood leadership

Reframing early childhood leadership,Below articles give one page summary .,Reframing early childhood leadership Elizabeth Stamopoulos Edith Cowan University RAPID CHANGES IN AUSTRALIAN education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculunn (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian National Quality Framework {NCif) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the National Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009) have heightened the need for leaders to guide anc move the profession forward. Leaders need to build professional knowledge, pedagogical capacity and infrastructure in the early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce in order to deliver reforms and achieve high-quality outconres for children.,Yet research on early childhood leadership remains sparse and inadequately theorised, while the voice of the early childhood profession remains marginalised (Woodrow & Busch, 2008). In this paper I draw on my previous research n leadership and change management which investigated principals’, early childhood teachers’ and teacheraides’ conceptual and behavioural positions on educational changes in work contexts. I present a model of leadership that connects to practice, builds professional capacity and capability, and recognises the importance of relationship building and quality infrastructure. The model calls for robust constructions of leadership anc improved professional icentity that will reposition the profession so that it keeps pace with the critical needs of early childhood professionals. Within this model, tertiary educational institutions and professional organisations will play their ro)e in guiding the profession forward as new paradigms evolve and federal and state initiatives begin to surface.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,,Introduction Recent national educational reforms and accountability measures have imposed responsibilities on early childhood leaders far beyond their professional training and expertise. No longer is their role predominantly to teach children. Rather, it is to lead with intent, mentor and advocate in their work context, in partnership with children and families, vyithin community settings and in response to federal and state educational initiatives targetting children from birth to age eight years. National mandatory reforms that focus on educational practice demand shared visions, reconceptualisations of pedagogy and practice, and vigorous leadership. Leaders need to develop a shared sense of culture, strategic directions and infrastructure to motivate others to accept change. In this paper, ‘leaders’ are defined as early childhood professionals who share a reciprocal process to pursue chances that lead to a desired future. Rost (cited in Daft & Pirola-Merlo, 2009, p. 4) asserts leadership is an ‘influence relationship’ amongst,leaders and followers, who may sometimes be the same people, who are engaged in different roles with varied levels of leadership responsibilities at different times. Leadership is constructed as each person interacts and influences another while contributing to a shared vision. Early childhood professionals who make decisions about educational practice in their work are leaders in their own right. The recent introduction of a new wave of national reforms in 2010 has once agam raised concerns from the early childhood sector on how national and state governments will implement changes in educational contexts and the support structures that will be put in place. Educational reforms such as the Australian Curriculum (AC), mandated Australian National Quality Framework (ANQF) for Early Childhood Education and Care, and the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) require specialised professional knowledge of new curriculurr documentation for all professionals expected to take on leadership roles and make key,Australasian,Journal,of E a r l y,Childhood,decisions about educational practice. This requires pedagogical leaders to reflect on their professional practice, focus on curriculum decision-making, teaching and learning processes and recognise the importance of nurturing relationships that promote children’s learning (DEEWR, 2009). To date in Western Australia (WA), a process has not yet been articulated nor an infrastructure developed to support those involved in change. There is clearly a need for vigorous leadership in such times of uncertainty. This paper draws on data from previous research and the literature to develop a model of leadership with the capacity to build professional knowledge and apply it to practice through interpretation, ongoing dialogue and relational trust. Leadership is reframed as a shared responsibility for all early childhood professionals who must tackle educational change. This leadership model challenges those involved in change to build on their pedagogical and professional knowledge and maintain their professional identity. It recognises the fragmented nature of Australian ECEC contexts and the diverse qualifications that exist across the workforce (Ortlipp, Arthur & Woodrow, 2011 ). The model acknowledges that leaders’ conduct is situated in their workplace and conditions of employment, and best understood in this context (Hewitt, 1976; Wood, 1982). Its theoretical basis. Symbolic Interaction Theory, concems the ‘self and the interpretative and interactive process within the social system (Mead, 1927). This theory views the ‘self as the core from which behaviours, judgements and goals are constructed (Stamopoulos, 2001). Symbolic interactionism captures the ways individuals construct a stance towards change and provides a framework for exploring their perspectives. The stance of pedagogical leaders in respect of changes in their ECEC workplace is important because, as indispensable agents of change, they are capable of enhancing or obstructing its success. The term ‘stance’ in this paper refers to the conceptual and behavioural position adopted by leaders, specifically their beliefs about the change process and their intended mode of accommodating to those changes. This paper draws on two research studies from the past and reframes the future through the application of an interpretive lens, professional knowledge, professional identity and relational trust. It supports the notion that educational reforms challenge leaders to reconceptualise their practice and follow a radical point of departure from present thoughts and practices (Nelson & Hammerman, 1996). The model prioritises the voice of pedagogical leaders, draws on the cumulative strengths of the early childhood profession, its members and associates to deliver reforms in ways which retain their professional identity and move the profession forward.,Reflecting on the past History reveals that knowledge drawn from the past can be reflected upon in the present to generate new knowledge that informs the future. In this section of the paper I draw on two previous WA research studies (1992-1995; 1996-2001) that sought to better understand the complexities of leadership and change management along with the stance of individuals towards change. The studies offer a lens through which current educational reforms can be reflected upon to find innovative ways of initiating change outcomes. Anecdotal comments from the early childhood profession suggest that the government mandate to include early childhood teachers in birth-five ECEC contexts may, in its transition phase, challenge pedagogical leaders to seek professional knowledge, reconceptualise their practice, demand quality support structures, and seek guidance from within and beyond the profession. Calls for the upskilling of qualified and unqualified workers in birth-five ECEC contexts have already begun in order to keep pace with educational reforms. How these changes will be re-enacted in practice has yet to be articulated. Research study 1 (1992-1995) In the first research study (1992-1995) I examined the professional background and perceptions of principals on their leadership role in pre-primar/. This was in response to the swift implementation of full-day fiveyear-old pre-primary programs in schools without support or consultation with the profession. During the implementation process there was growing resistance to change from early childhood professionals, parents and the WA community whose voices were marginalised. Data from this study (Stamopoulos, 1995) concluded that all principals drawn from one metropolitan district of the Education Department of Western Australia (EDWA) perceived they lacked the necessary knowledge and experience to provide adequate leadership in pre-primary; they felt preprimary was specialised and different from the primary school, and revealed they had not been provided with adequate professional development to implement a leadership role. Examination of the conceptual and behavioural stance of pedagogical leaders towards current educational reforms will be important in determining their success or demise. This process may help minimise the resistance to change that emerged in WA schools in 1994 and culminated in the Western Australian Govemment releasing a ministerial statement acknowledging that ‘the hurried introduction of full-time preprimary education for only one-third of the children of the state along with the poorly coordinated provision for four year olds is unsatisfactory’ (Moore, 1994, n. p.). V o l u m e 37 N u m b e r 2 J u n e 2012,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,,Resistance flared again in 1995 with the Government’s intended changes to the school entry age and its implementation of ‘Good Start”. Professional organisations expressed concerns that changes were based on administrative and economic reasons rather than educational (Ewing, 1997). Once again, the voices of the profession were marginalised, and a culture of mistrust emerged. Concerns were raised that government had not kept pace with the critical needs of staff and the pace of change (Corrie, 1999b). Data from this study was reported in The West Australian, July 12, 1995 (TanVan Baren, 1995) amidst community concern about the quality of learning for pre-priman/ children. Education Minister Norman Moore once again acceded to public pressure and modified ‘Good Start’. Premier Richard Court admitted there had been insufficient consultation with early childhood professionals and parents and that there would be no changes to the school entry age until the year 2000. Once again, a government decision was reversed as a result of the stance of those involved in change. Clearly there was the need for a collaborative process that would re-build a sense of trust. Research study 2 (1996-2001) In the second WA research study (1996-2001 ) I examined the stance of school staffs in three independent and three government school settings to understand the beliefs and responses of those involved in change. Symbolic interaction theory was used asa basis of this study because of its primary concern with the ‘self and the interpretative and interactive process within the social system (Mead, 1927). The theory maintains that individuals are proactive, in control of their lives, responsible for their actions, and a critical part of the success or demise of any change process (Van den Hoonaard, 1997; Wood, 1982; Woods, 1992). Symbolic interaction provides a methodological tool by which we can examine how ECEC professionals interpret leadership and the ways they reflect upon the social and cultural factors within their work contexts (Hard, 2006). This methodology can assist in applying an interpretive lens to current educational reforms and monitoring their progress (Stamopoulos, 2010). In 1995, WA’s Education Minister Norman Moore’s promise to the community for local access signalled the beginnings of P1^ combination classes in WA schools, based on economic reasons. Problems emerged during the implementation process when it was not possible to include all children in pre-primary classes. EDWA directed principals to include multi-grade classes when there were insufficient classrooms. The expectation,was that PI would fit into the school structure. Early childhood specialists, school staff and parents responded to the emergence of PI combination classes with strong concerns about the rationale behind this change, limited evidence that this approach would provide quality education, and doubts that principals had the capacity to provide early childhood pedagogical leadership. Data from the study gave voice to staff and identified explicit links between their beliefs and the ways they responded to change. In the opinion of staff, change impacted in some way on job success, job security, job satisfaction and/or job status, and the welibeing of their students. Most staff who defined change as positive were in schools where there was some kind of leadership, guidance, support structures and/or resources. Those who lacked such supports tended to hold a different view. A clear majority of staff criticised the level of leadership and guidance provided, claiming there was a lack of external and internal support for schools. It became apparent that the work of leaders was determined by the conduct of those around them and best understood in this context. Their stance was dynamic, complex, multi-faceted, and continuously evolving as the pressures of change forced them to re-evaluate their definition of change and focus on the projected costs and benefits to themselves and their students. The different kinds of relationships they had with others also became the basis for different responses to the same situation. School staff saw themselves as having varying degrees of power within their work contexts, which impacted on the way they behaved. The more positively they regarded their situation, the more they adopted a supportive stance. The more dissatisfied they were, the more they adopted an oppositional stance. In between these extremes were the passive dissenters who quietly withdrew, predicting the change would soon disappear; and the pragmatists who tried to negotiate for better conditions. Ultimately, approximately two-thirds of staff leaned towards opposing PI as a change because of the absence of educational leadership; trained early childhood staff; differences in philosophy, power and relationships; and the absence of curriculum guidelines and support structures. In addition to the dominant view, two strong minority views were representative of approximately ohe-third of staff. One minority view was supportive of this change, endorsing its continuation in its current form, while the other was not convinced that multi-age strategies could be applied only in vertical groupings. School staff reported their stance was ‘situated’ in their workplace,‘ Good Start was initiated to provide quality, developmental programs for all five-year-olds in their pre-primary year by the end of 1998. There was to be a transfer of kindergarten programs from the Department of Family and Children’s Services to EDWA and an adjustment of the entry age for kindergarten children. ‘ School staff refers to principals, early childhood teachers and teacher-aides who lead or work in PI classes. ^ PI classes in this paper refers to pre-primary (non-compulsory year of schooling) and Year 1 children (compulsory year of schooling) who are combined in the one class for administrative benefits.,A u s t r a l a s i a n,Journal,of Early,C h i l d h o o d,and employment conditions, and best understood in this context. Once again there were also strong concerns that government and curriculum expertise had not kept pace with the critical needs of staff and the pace of change (Corrie, 1999a; Stamopoulos 2003a; Tayler, 1998). Current educational reforms Rapid changes in Australia have intensified the role of ECEC professionals creating new pathways for pedagogical leadership to be reconceptualised and ultimately reframed to deliver reforms that achieve highquality outcomes for children. The transition of early childhood teachers in birth to five contexts, along with the push for pedagogical leadership amongst all professionals who work with young children, will require monitoring so that current reforms meet their intended outcomes. The EYLF clearly stipulates that ever/one who works with young children will take on a pedagogical leadership role, foster secure relationships with children and families, and generate curriculum decisions in teaching and learning (DEEWR, 2009). The professional judgement of leaders is considered central to the application of new reforms and the promotion of positive educational outcomes for children (DEEWR, 2010a). Data from both studies across a 10-year period reported inadequate leadership, professional knowledge, support structures and consultative processes which led to an erosion of trust. Hardy and Palmer (1999) remind us of the limits of individual action and how individuals can become entrapped in webs from the past. The need for governments to understand the conceptual and behavioural positions of those involved in change, and to develop infrastructures that support them, is critical if reforms are to achieve their intended outcomes.,that best suits their needs. According to Sumsion, Cheeseman, Harrison, Kennedy and Stonehouse (2009), early childhood professionals should be entrusted to make sound judgements and initiate change. A brief overview of each aspect is presented here to stimulate future discussion. Professional knowledge Leaders who pursue change within their work contexts require knowledge of research, leadership and early childhood pedagogy. Responding to new reforms requires pedagogical leaders to reach consensus and, where warranted, apply change in their work context. Educational reforms such as the EYLF support a culture of professional inquiry where pedagogical leaders come together to examine current practice, review outcomes, generate new ways of thinking, build on professional knowledge and develop confidence (DEEWR, 2009). The model proposed here is conducive to the notion of having integrated services that will draw in a wider group of professional leaders from diverse specialisations. The early childhood leader’s role in developing nurturing relationships within and beyond work contexts, and applying a strong early years’ knowledge base to integrated service delivery, is important. Mandated educational reforms such as the AC, ANOF and the EYLF require pedagogical leadership from all professionals who work in early childhood education. The mandatory inclusion of four-year-trained early childhood teachers in child care,, along with the growing trend for the admission of younger children, will challenge existing pedagogical practice and call for new constructions of leadership. Shared leadership where all personnel interact and influence one another will be important in making decisions about educational practice. The EYLF articulates the need for pedagogical leadership from all professionals who work with young children. However, a sound understanding of new curriculum reforms is required to achieve this task, along with the identification of those who require new knowledge to perform such tasks. Support structures and ongoing professional learning will be essential. Relationship building and trust will be critical in avoiding the resistance to change that appears to emerge when new reforms are implemented (Stamopoulos, 2003b). However, it should be noted that leaders’ support for change is not always warranted, especially when change is not in the best interests of children, their families, staff and the early childhood profession. Professional identity Developing professional identity requires early childhood professionals to think in alternative ways, to reconstruct or reshape who they are, what they stand for and what they want to achieve. ‘If we know who to be, then what,Reframing early childhood leadership: In search of a leadership model Leaders with vision have the skills and capacity to draw on the best from the past, and to move with clear purpose into the future (Woodrow, 2008). Shared leadership that is inclusive of all those who work with young children will provide multiple perspectives to better understand the change process. Leadership is reframed as a shared responsibility amongst all professionals, tertiary educational institutions, professional organisations and those who work and interact with young children and their families. This section of the paper targets four aspects of leadership that early childhood leaders need to know, understand and apply in their work: 1) professional knowledge; 2) professional identity; 3) the application of interpretive lenses; and 4) relational trust. Each of these aspects is interrelated and builds capacity in leaders and the early childhood profession to find a model of leadership,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,,Volume,37 N u m b e r,2 June,2012,to do falls into place’ (Cunliffe, 2009 cited by Carroll, 2010). No one person holds the key to understanding the complexities of leadership, nor a template for finding the correct answers. Instead, leaders need to create a space in which professional identity can be crafted through ongoing dialogue and reflection. Competence breeds confidence and the knowledge to lead in a successful manner Overton’s (2009) research examines the personal and professional identity of teachers to ascertain the implications of ongoing educational change and power relationships on teachers. Disempowerment emerged through the lack of appreciation of teachers’ work; the lack of resources and funding; and lack of support from system management. In research conducted by Stamopoulos (2001), power, relationships, pressure and different definitions of the change process were important factors in determining principals’, early childhood teachers’ and teacher-aides’ responses to change. In numerous instances they moved from empowerment to disempowerment as a consequence of leadership, infrastructure, philosophical difference, power, relationships and pressure from system management. Overton (2009) reveals empowerment was evident through involvement in professional associations, professional development, decision-making processes and length of teaching experience, and warns that the goodwills shared by employers and teachers in the past is in need of repair. The importance of professional identity is critical in the sustainability of the early childhood profession. Professional identity is supported through the construction of our own Early Childhood Australia Code of Ethics (Early Childhood Australia, 2006). Interpretive lens There is a need to build a leadership culture that is inclusive of key stakeholders such as government, policymakers, leaders, early childhood professionals, families and communities. An infrastructure that links policy to practice is required. Such an infrastructure needs to be regularly assessed to ensure that quality leadership drives change, reflects sound pedagogical practice, and connects to the needs of children, their family, community and the early childhood profession. Past reflections reveal that resistance to change tends to emerge when reforms do not keep pace with the critical needs of professionals and an interpretive lens has not been applied to the challenges that emerge. Reforms require the support and leadership of those involved in change. The EYLF signals a need for pedagogical leadership, intentional teaching and professionals who are critically reflective (Sumsion et al., 2009). Leaders who nurture reflective capacity in staff have been effective in constructing a shared culture of learning that meets the needs of organisations (Colmer, 2008). The importance of reflection and self-inquiry is seen as an essential component of leadership and change management,(Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2005; Deakins, 2007). Leaders who apply an interpretive lens are more likely to interpret cause and effect, generate solutions and support others in achieving their goals (Forrest, 2010). In so doing, they build a professional culture that applies reflection and analysis in order to build leadership capacity. Relational trust Relational theories explore how leaders and followers relate to and influence each other (Daft & Pirola-Merlo, 2009). Interpersonal relationships are integral to leadership effectiveness because they entice followers to contribute to the change process. Motivation and empowerment, team leadership, and strong communication skills become the basis on which relationships are built. Early childhood leaders respond to the challenges of reforms through their capacity to lead colleagues, families, community and the profession through shared vision, purpose and identity. Evans and Stone-Johnson (2010) highlight the importance of effective networks that promote sharing of professional knowledge, empower teacher leadership and address the agency of teachers. However, they reveal this is often fraught with difficulties when teachers resist surrendering their professional identities to others (Little, 1995, cited in Evans & Stone-Johnson, 2010). The importance of robust leadership in promoting networking during the change process is critical because networking is fragile and complex to sustain. Initiating and sustaining change requires leaders to challenge others to reconceptualise their beliefs and respond in new ways. Alliances formed on the basis of consensus and perceived advantage enable leaders to connect in diverse ways with others that provides greater resilience when faced with challenges.,Connecting with the profession Current reforms call for stronger constructions of leadership across diverse early years’ settings. Leadership that is both pedagogically focused on young children and sociologically focused on family and the community must interconnect with integrated services for children, families and communities. Nolan, Macfarlane and Cartmel (2010) highlight the need for early childhood professionals to lead integrated service delivery using a strong early years’ knowledge base. Pedagogical leadership can be strengthened through strategies and skills along with interprofessional practice. A critical aspect of leading change is a strong basis of professionalism that supports risk taking. Yet no Australian studies have been located which examine early childhood practitioners’ perspectives of themselves as professionals (Ortlipp et al., 2011). Avenues through which leadership can be promoted and nurtured are important. My recent participation in Roundtable Discussions specific to early childhood leadership focused on the importance of leadership and research, and discussed how leadership can be,Australasian,J o u r n a l of E a r l y,Childhood,developed within the early childhood profession in ways which give voice to the profession (Semann & Slattery, Macquarie University & Children’s Services Central, 2010). Relationships between leadership, pedagogy and professional identity will also be strengthened with close connections to educational institutions and early childhood professional organisations. A professional culture that connects with early childhood professionals and leaders will assist in developing proactive professionals who face the challenges of the future (Nupponen, 2006). Tertiary educational Institutions Educational institutions responsible for the preparation of early childhood professionals must play their part in developing pedagogical leaders with knowledge of leadership theory and change management, and a commitment to evidence-based research. The topic of leadership should be embedded in undergraduate coursework and early childhood postgraduate leadership specialisations, and grounded in theory, research and practice. Exit pathways that improve the capacity of professionals to gain promotion, enhance their status, draw financial rewards and match the professional aspirations of individuals are more likely to stimulate graduates to take on leadership roles and entice others to access graduate leadership courses. Graduate leadership units can link theory to practice and promote a sense of community between educational institutions and the general community. Internships with mentoring from leaders are important in the training of new leaders (Couse & Russo, 2006). Early childhood professional organisations The role of early childhood professional organisations in guiding the profession forward is crucial. Peak organisations such as Early Childhood Australia (ECA) currently provide support across Australia in order to guide professionals in the implementation of the EYLF The construction of the ECA e-forum, e-Newsletter and Facebook site (EYLF PLP, 2011), as well as the recent release of a range of publications that focus on the EYLF, is reflective of the work of ECA as a professional organisation to support its members and move the profession forward.,the early childhood profession and negatively impacted on its capacity to build a strong leadership identity (Woodrow & Busch, 2008). It is disappointing that the Australian Teachers Leading Curriculum Change: Professional Learning Flagship Program (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership) makes no mention of the EYLF in schools and that the profession’s voice would have been nearly silenced if not for the advocacy role of ECA WA Branch. Frameworks that develop pathways for aligning beliefs and professional identity are important in building professional capacity and must be maintained (Raban et al., 2007). Leadership models must draw on the cumulative strengths of the early childhood profession, its members and associates, and provide scaffolds that achieve quality outcomes (Stamopoulos, 2010). Constructions of leadership are not static but evolve as traditional approaches are replaced with new paradigms. The early childhood profession must swiftly respond to Federal Government initiatives that acknowledge the importance of the early years. Public investment in the infrastructure is required, if pedagogical leaders’ needs are to be established and comprehensive evaluations put in place. Without evaluations, those involved in change often resist what they define as misinformed policy, especially when met with more than one interpretation. In this leadership model it is important that lessons are applied from the past to guide our understandings of human nature and remain in tune with the conceptual and behavioural stance of those who lead change.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,,References Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) (2011). Austraiian Curricuium. Canberra: ACARA. Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2009). Belonging, being & becoming: The Eariy Years Learning Framework for Austraiia Canberra: DEEWR. Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2010a). Educators; Belonging, being & becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Austraiia. Canberra: DEEWR. Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) (2010b). Nationai Ouaiity Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care CanberraDEEWR. Carroll, B. (2010). Leadership and identity: Redefining confidence, trust and doubt. Proceedings of the Creating New Frontiers in Leadership Conference, Sydney, 12 November, 2010. Colmer, K. (2008). Leading a learning organisation: Australian early years centres as learning networks. European Early Chiidhood Education Research Journal, 76(1), 107-115. Corrie, L. (1999a). Politics, the provision of physical amenities and the ‘push-down’ curriculum. Australian Journai of Early Childhood, 24(3), 5-10.,Conclusion If leadership is to be reframed, it must have a basis of professional knowledge, professional identity, an interpretive frame and relational trust. The early childhood profession’s focus must be on pedagogical leadership that connects to practice, builds professional capacity and capability, and recognises the importance of relationship building and quality infrastructure. Ho

November 4, 2015

Strategic Management in the Hospitality Industry, on TUI travel company

Strategic Management in the Hospitality Industry, on TUI travel company,,Abstract This report includes through analyses of Hilton Inc. and it business unit such as Hilton Hotels and Resorts, Conrad Hotels and Resorts, Home2 Suites by Hilton. The report consist of introduction based on Course work one, covering Porter Five Forces Analyses, Competitive capabilities, and PESTEL Analyses’ results. Further study of Hilton strategic position, are done by using in famous Porter generic strategy and Strategy clock theories in order to identify strategic position of Hilton Hotels and Resorts. To extract more detailed information regarding Hilton strategic performance, the author conduct value creation process of Hilton worldwide towards its business unit, analyses. Additionally the analyses were done using Ansoff Matrix and BCG Matrix with three business units of the Hilton Inc. The author of the report was able to compile detailed report based on provided information, as well as provide recommendation on potential future opportunities. 4 Introduction Background Hilton worldwide is one of hospitality largest corporation. The organization has been around for almost a century now, with Conrad Hilton purchase of his first lodging property known as Mobley Hotel in 1919 Cisco, Texas. Shortly after Conrad Hilton recognized the potential of lodging industry and in 1925 the first Hilton Hotel was found in Dallas, Texas. Throughout following years Hilton lodging company continues to expend and grow across United States of America. The turning year for Hilton Company was 1949, when first international Hilton Hotel was open in Puerto Rico. However, Hilton success was only behind rapid expansion but also behind Conrad Hilton believe in innovations. Hilton hotels were the first lodging hotels to inaugurate in-room TV (1947), as well as the begin developing property within promises of Airports in 1963. Nowadays, Hilton Corporation has taken place among Hospitality leaders, with ten business units within an organization. Those include Hilton Grand Vacations, HOME2, Hilton Garden Inn, Hilton Hotels and Resorts, Hampton, Double Tree, Homewood Suites, Embassy Suites, Waldorf Astoria and Conrad Hotels and Resorts. Hilton property has scattered across 6 continents and 90 countries, with total of 4000 Hotels and 650000 rooms. The organisation is also providing employment for more than 144,000 employees worldwide.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,5 Organizational culture: Values: FORMALLY STARTED BY THE ORGANIZATION ? H OSPITALITY Passionate about delivering exceptional guest experiences ? I NTEGRITY Do the right thing, all the time ? L EADERSHIP Leaders in the industry and in their communities ? T EAMWORK Team players in everything they do ? O WNERSHIP The owners of their own actions and decisions ? N OW Operate with a sense of urgency and discipline Vision – To fill the earth with the light and warmth of hospitality Mission – To be the preeminent global hospitality company – the first choice of guests, team members, and owners alike. 6 Organization analyses: Pestle Analyses: Team compiling a previous project, has come out with two primary key scenarios that might have a direct affect for Hilton Hotels and Resorts. Those scenario included Strict Visa Regulations and importance of e-commerce. Visa regulation in the country is one of the tools to adjust number of foreigner arrivals; therefore it has a direct impact on tourism volume. Hilton Hotels are part of Hospitality industry and directly affected by tourism industry in the country. E-commerce – as world enters IT era, it’s essential for large organization to adapt to changes in ways of conducting business and market themselves. If once the most popular marketing approaches were billboards and printed media, now with Internet continue growing, Online marketing become a vital tool for marketing and advertisement. The best key scenario for Hilton Hotels is believed to be a combination of low visa regulation and strong e-commerce. Low visa regulation will allow volume of tourism to increase; consequently expanding a size of tourism market as well as profits for organization if such managed to take advantage of growing market. Whereas, strong e-commerce will provide a ground for organization to increase its market share in growing market resulting to increase of company’s revenues. Porter Five Forces analyses: The approach allowed the author to identify the attractiveness of Hilton Hotels and Resorts for future investments. It was identified that Suppliers have a low power, buyers have a high power, threat of substitutes is high, new entries are low and rivalry is high in the market. Although the analyses of five forces have shown a comparably balance distribution of power in the market for large hospitality operators, the industry remained attractive for investments. The business remain stable over time with power distribution in the market is balanced. Additionally Hilton Hotels and Resorts is remaining potentially attractive business for investment. Despite long term financial crisis, organization continues its growth and expansion within flourishing markets in Asia and South America with number of new projects being developed. Competitive advantages of Hilton worldwide: Hilton Hotels have a number of unique competences, which are exclusively designed bathroom amenities by infamous dermatologist Peter Thomas Rose. This allows Hilton to provide unique experience for their customer as well as out-stand 7 organization from its competitors. To further enhance unique experience, ePrint HP application was designed for organization to ensure convenience for business customers that have put their trust with Hilton. Moreover, Hilton is not only providing unique experience for their customers but also for their employees. Hilton Training program known as Hilton Worldwide University is large training and education program that allows employees to develop their personal skills and educate them with accordance to Hilton’s values, mission and vision. Those resources and competences allow Hilton to create a unique image in contrast with their competitors. Exclusively designed applications and amenities are ways to enhance guest experience and allow them to feel differences between Hilton and other brands. Training program for Hilton is not only aiming to provide experience for employees, who is able to develop their skills and establish a career growth but also provide unique experience for customers as ways to deliver service and product are different from those of other brands. 8 Aims and Objectives Aim: ? To analyse strategic position, the strategic purpose and culture of Conrad Hotels and Resorts, Hilton Hotels and Resorts and HOME2 Suites. Thereby using strategic planning and change management theories. Objective: ? Examine competitive strategy of Hilton Hotels and Resorts and Strategic Clock ? To analyse with the use of the Ansoff Matrix and BCG Matrix strategic options that Conrad Hotels and Resorts, Hilton Hotels and Resorts and HOME2 could/should pursue in the future ? To write a conclusion and propose recommendation for future organization 9 Generic Strategies HILTON HOTELS RESORTS: Hilton Hotels and Resorts is one of the most prominent business units within Hilton worldwide corporation. Its mid-range hotel, available to customers in any parts of the world, the property is considered to be competitor to other hospitality leaders such Marriott Hotels and InterContinental hotels. The Hilton hotel has a large pool of loyal customers that have been with company for many years or only join. The organization use Hilton Honor reward program to sustain and build a large pool of loyal customers, both leisure and corporate travelers. The Hilton works towards creating and providing unique experience for it’s customers through provision of exclusive training for Hilton employees, who consequently delivers Hilton standard of service to customers. In accordance with beliefs of Hilton founder, organization is working to implement innovation in daily operation of Hotels as well as for guest experience. It’s not only renovation and updating of facilities that allows Hilton to preserve experience, but it’s also exclusively designed amenities and even application for business center. Although Hilton Hotels and Resorts is high standard property, it’s not a fully luxury hotel like Conrad and Astoria Hotels, but it’s a property that is considered to be among industry leaders. As mid-range hotel that is surrounded by number of strong competitor. Hilton is not able to be flexible with the rate, and is forced to maintain market average rate to remain competitive. Thorough Hilton Marketing it could be seen that Hilton is attempting to present itself as different lodging establishment that provide unique and special experience for customers. This identifies that Hilton Hotels and Resort is attempting to establish organization as different and unique property. It makes apparent that Hilton management is using Porter Generic Strategy of Differentiation.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,10 Strategy Clock HILTON HOTELS AND RESORTS Hilton Hotels and Resorts is one of the world hospitality leaders. It is a lodging company that is focused to provide high standard product and service to customers of both leisure and corporate market. Although Hilton worldwide corporation that is aiming to deliver product to various market segments from low-medium income customers to high-income customer, Hilton Hotels and Resorts are mostly aiming to sell their product to mid-range income customers. Hilton Hotels trying to provide unique service and product to its customers in order to differentiate themselves from competitor’s Hotels. The organization providing excusive amenities, property designs as well as Hilton renowned service. Using this strategy Hilton was able to establish itself as one of the permanent members of Hospitality market. The author of this research has concluded that Hilton Hotels and Resorts are in Route 4 (Differentiation Strategy) of strategic clock. This route of strategic clock, include organization that are providing products with high-perceived benefits at mid-range price. Therefore, Hilton as an organization is providing high standard product at average market place is currently at this stage of strategic clock. However, Hilton is tending to change the route as touristic season changes. Hilton property is switches to Route 5 (Focused Differentiation Strategy), during pick season in tourism industry. While at this stage, Hilton raising it rates for equal product. Under Focused Differentiation Strategy it’s understood, that product is perceived to be highly beneficial and sold at high price. Tourism industry is vibrant sector, with volume of business changes in accordance with seasons and weather. It’s been analyzed that Hilton generally operates within Route 4 (Differentiation Strategy) of strategic clock, but as demand for tourism accommodation raises Hilton is travelling to Route 5(Focused Differentiation Strategy). Furthermore, the touristic demand in certain geographic location tends to drop in volume. This is the time when Hilton Hotels switching to Route 3(Hybrid Strategy) of strategic clock. During this period of time, Hilton lowering its rates to maintain hotel occupancy but continue to provide high-standard product. Hybrid Strategy includes organization that providing high-standard product at the lower price. Hilton Hotels and Resorts are mostly operating within three routes of strategic clock. It’s done due to changes of demand and supply in tourist market. As organization is travel from route to route, they main goals are maintain occupancy during low season, maximize profits while at pick season and remain competitive during mid-season periods. 11 Value Creation The Hilton Hotels and resorts, is part of Hilton worldwide corporation. As part of larger network and business unit, the mother company attempting to create value for unit through various approaches. Those approaches include Envisioning, Couching and Facilitating, Provision of central services and resources and Intervening when required. This process of value creation allows organization to establish its unit into certain market. In case with this report, Hilton worldwide is establishing it’s business unit into mid-range hospitality market both in home country and over-sees. Envisioning During this stage of creating value, the mother company shares assist it’s business unit to create sense of direction and goal to strive for. Through this process Hilton Hotels and Resorts are driven and guided through set of qualities and values. Hilton Hotels and Resorts, is largest unit of Hilton worldwide, and it shares the visions, mission and values between two organizations. Though share of values Hilton is able to establish business unit that represents everything for what the brand stands. It helps organization to spread universal standards and create a large pool of loyal customers. Hilton brand sharing it values that state, Hospitality (Deliver the exceptional service to customers), Integrity (Staying with it principles at any situation), Leadership (Be a leader in its industry and communities), Team (encourage and practice teamwork across all aspects of business), Now (move with time, be always innovative and up to date) (Hilton Worldwide, 2014). This values allows company to be aligned in it’s interests and to be consistent for customers, competitors, communities and organizational team. Furthermore, both organizations are sharing common mission and vision. The mission of Hilton Worldwide and Hilton Hotels and Resorts states the desire to be the preeminent global hospitality company – the first choice of guests, team members, and owners alike. Whereas the vision is to fill the earth with the light and warmth of hospitality. Couching and facilitating The couching and facilitating is inseparable part of Hilton Hotels and Resorts cooperation Hilton worldwide. The business unit is a franchise business unit of corporation. Due to it’s nature as the franchise organization it is not focused on expansion through purchasing tangible assets but rather focused on selling service and brand in order to expend. 12 The organization is offering its product in set of service that include business plan, training services, marketing advantages as well as managing contract together with most importantly with a brand name. Business plan for franchising Hilton covers numerous aspect of operation, beginning with architecture, construction and decoration of the property. Architecture and design protocols of franchise agreement, including assistants of expert’s team. The involvement of the team might varies depending on circumstance, for example if the franchisee desires to construct new building, the team will provide all necessary assistance in planning and creating building outline. However, if franchisee already possesses a property, the team will assist them with refurbishing and re-branding image of the establishment in accordance with Hilton standards (Hilton worldwide, 2014). Other than architectural assistance, Hilton provides further services stated under managerial agreement. The agreement includes full-management of the property by Hilton established standards. Under this term is understood that Hilton is supplying Human Resource training and development, appointing an experienced and capable General Manager as well as provide assistance with food and beverage establishments, SPA operation, revenue management, event planning and many more depending on the nature of establishment. Over all, Hilton worldwide and Hilton Hotels and Resorts are expansion-focused organization as most of the industry leaders. However, the organization recognizes opportunity through selling pre-planned service and established brand in order to expend. This sort of expansion approaches are known as franchise and focused on selling services that covers most aspect of the organization operation, instead of expending through purchasing numerous properties with direct leadership. Providing central services and resource Hilton Hotel and resorts is one of the first and most prominent business units with the Hilton Corporation. Headquarter organization and business unit are closely tight together with Hilton worldwide providing envisioning, and couching service to Hilton hotels and resorts franchisees. Further relation between two organizations comes from provision of central services and resources. Central service that Hilton worldwide provides to its business units include central reservation system, common marketing and performance assistances similar to those identified in section of couching and facilitating.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,Central reservation system is function of the mother company website, that allows visitors to find any business unit property at different location. Through this function the loyal customers of the brand can be informed on presence of the establishment in 13 different parts of the world. As Hilton executes it’s marketing program that might include certain business unit and entire brand, regardless to aim the Hilton market it’s brand name that stated on all business unit including Hilton Hotels and Resorts. Last but not least Hilton provides the service covered in couching and facilitating and additionally it provides service such as Hilton performance appraisal mentioned on official website of the Corporation. The service intends to provide performance appraisal and owner information for franchisees in order to improve performance or adjust to changes in the market. Intervening Hilton worldwide is one of the hospitality leading organization and as any market leader they facing the importance of establishing consistency and maintaining standards of performance unchanged. As market changes around the Globe its not always possible to remain consistent. As gaps appear, it is a signal for main company to intervene in operation of its business units. As discussed in previous sections of value creation process, Hilton provides numerous services that intervene in operations of individual properties. The most notable part of intervening is managerial contract. As stated in the managerial function that Hilton main company is responsible for appointing General Manager and training and developing personal. Furthermore, as covered in previous sections the engineering assistants, performance appraisal and other function, could be names as intervening into daily operation of the individual properties. 14 Ansoff Matrix Hilton Hotels and Resorts is an largest and oldest business unit of Hilton corporation. It is a brand with established reputation and large pool of loyal customers. It’s could be said that Hilton hotels and resorts is a flagship of Hilton worldwide. This section will include the analyses of Hilton Hotels and Resorts through utilization of use the approach known as Ansoff Matrix. Ansoff Matrix is the approach of the strategic marketing that divided into four primary strategies of product development in current market situation. The Matrix is consistent of four strategies: 1. Market Penetration is strategy that includes provision of the same product, but with adjustment to the price. The companies using excessive amount of promotion to outstand it’s product. Furthermore, company is aiming at increasing number of distribution channels as well as constant product development and improvement. 2. Diversification Strategy is a strategy that common for organization, providing unique product into new types of the market. The company is tend to use economies of scope and use of dominant logic. Additionally this strategy includes a constant investment into increase of market power. 3. Market Development is a strategy used by organization that enters new market with product developed prior entrance. The organization strategy is focused on developing promotions, market research and defining of market segmentation. 4. Product Development is a strategy that used by organization that focused on development and improvement of existent product. The organization develops its product in the market, where organization is present. To develop the product organization is focused on delivering to customer needs, innovations and brand growth. In case of this report, the author has conducted analyses and come to conclusion. Hilton Hotels and Resorts using the strategy of PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. The conclusion was extracted due to analyses from number of fact related to organization. Same product – Hilton has been focusing on development of the same product over decade, in order to create a superior offer from its competitors. Hilton Hotels and Resorts, formally known as Hilton Hotel, is focused on developing mid-range class product to satisfy needs of mix market segment that include both leisure and corporate clients. By utilizing its vision, the organization is striving to bring innovation into set of core product of the organization. Furthermore organization has created a unique training program in order to be able to accompany core product with superior and unique service. Focused on customer needs – The Hilton Hotels and resorts are focused to create a product of consistent quality and standard in order to maintain demand for the brand. The organization is seems to be working towards growing the pool of loyal 15 customers. The organization created and continues using the rewards system known as Hhonnors. This program is aimed at sustaining customers and most importantly ensures provision of benefits for constant clients to the brand. The organization is focused on constant improvement of the product in order to differentiate the company from competitors. Extension of the brand – Hilton brand is one the most known hospitality brands, if not the most. Despite being among largest organizations, the company continues to practice the constant expansion through selling its brand as the franchise. It allows company to expend throughout the world without a need of purchasing tangible assets and go through process of domestic legal system. It stated on the Hilton worldwide website that company become the fastest growing hospitality organization in the world. (Hilton worldwide, 2014) Technology – Hilton Hotels and Resorts management is strive to be innovative with accordance to its values. Conrad Hilton the founder of the company has always believed that innovation is key to success. For example, Hilton Hotels were the first lodging property to equip in-room Television. To further develop the product Hilton used all innovative technology to develop its training program to improve service as well as use of technology to increase value of its product. 16 BCG Matrix This section will include analyses of three business units within Hilton Worldwide. In order to conduct the analyses the BCG Matrix, also known as Growth-Share Matrix. Through utilizing the approach, author is able to define the market place of each business unit used in the following section. BCG matrix is focusing on defining product place of the product. There are totally four provided types of share-growth products: 1. Dogs – is the product located in slow growing market with limited market share, those products are often break-even units, that use to diversify company portfolio. 2. Problem Child – is the product located in the fast growing market, however, having low market share marks them. This type of product is the unit with unknown future outcome, as it may become a dog or on another hand it may have future as star and even cash cow eventually. 3. Star – product that have high market share in the fast growing market and often in niche leading markets. The star products are often developed from problem child product and eventually matured into Cash Cow. 4. Cash Cow – is often a primary products of the company that have high market share within slowly growing market. Cash Cow are company cash generators and often resulting from stars. It’s common to use number of Cash cows in company portfolio to understand the financial capability of the organization.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,For this report, the author use four business units from Hilton worldwide, all business units are taken from three different types of Hilton service. Business units includes Home2 Suites (Focused service), Hilton Hotels and Resorts (Full-Service) and Conrad Hotels and Resorts (Luxury Hotel) Hilton Hotels and Resorts: It is the largest and oldest business units within Hilton Corporation. The business unit is established as flagship of the organization. According to official Hilton Website, the unit is fastest growing unit in the industry. Although Hiltons Hotels and Resort continue growing in the hospitality market, the mid-range hospitality market is highly developed and shared between industry leaders. Those facts could an indication, that Hilton hotels and Resort is Cash Cow of the Hilton worldwide. Home2 Suites: It’s youngest business unit of the Hilton worldwide. The new unit was founded in 2009, and focused on selling the apartment hotel style accommodation. Furthermore, creation of this unit is attempted to penetrate extended stay market segment. This market is fast growing in the industry, due to number of reason including decrease of travel price and increase of travel accessibility as well as growth of international corporations (Hotel Management Net, 2014) 17 Taking into account mentioned factors, it could be said the Home2 Suites having a low market share in potentially fast growing market. This indicates that Home2 Suites is Problem Child. It’s hard to analyze and project future outcome of the unit with having both possibility to become a Star or a Dog unit. However, recent news from Hilton website indicates that there are currently 100 home2 Suites hotels with many more being built internationally as unit expends into Mexico and Canada. Conrad Hotels and Resorts: This unit is luxury brand within Hilton chain, the property named after founder of Hilton Company, Conrad Hilton. The property operates in high-class market, focusing sales of the product on the niche that affords luxury products. There are currently 23 Conrad properties internationally. Luxury market is highly developed and competitive market. The unit is one of the hospitality luxury establishment leaders; however, there is a limited information on financial performance of the establishment. To resolve the problem with limited information author is compared the expansion of property with other luxury business unit of Hilton Corporation. For example the Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts was taken, the unit was established in 2006 making the company younger than Conrad Hotels and Resorts by two decades. Despite being a younger property Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts has 26 properties with 8 more under construction. The popularity of new unit that expended further than Conrad property in 8 years might indicate poor performance of Conrad Hotels and Resorts. Taking into account this comparison and slow growth in luxury market, the business unit is indicated to be Dog unit. 18 Conclusion Hilton Hotels and Resorts is an outstanding property of Hilton worldwide, the studies have been conducted in order to identify strategic position of the property. The numerous approaches has been used to finalize with the purpose of this study. The article includes generic strategy, routes of strategy clock, value creation and Ansoff Matrix, BCG Matrix. Author of the report has identified that Hilton Hotels and resorts are using the Porter Generic strategy of Differentiation in order to place its product into the market. There are number of evidence that accompany the statement, evidence include creation unique features of the product, unique staff training and creation of the product that is different from primary competitors. Strategy Clock was a second stage of analyses for Hilton hotels and Resorts. It was identified that Hilton as many other Hotels adjust the product financial value in accordance with demand in certain geographic region. Furthermore, the report includes a value creation process for Hilton Hotels and Resorts. The property is working closely with Hilton Corporation to maximize performance. Hilton worldwide sharing its culture and intervenes into operation of the Hotel on many occasions during operations. Further study of Ansoff Matrix, made author believe that Hilton Hotels and Resorts are using the strategy of product development. This conclusion has been made due to number of reasons that include Hilton strive to sustain and deliver to customer needs through provision of perfected product. In order to conclude the study of Hilton strategic position, the BCG Matrix analyses was used. Moreover, the analyses included three business units of Hilton worldwide, such as Conrad Hotels and Resorts, Hilton Hotels and Resorts and Home2 Suites. The study showed that Conrad Hotels and Resort is a Dog, Hilton Hotels and Resort is a Cash Cow and Home2 Suites is a Problem Child of the organization.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,According to conducted studies and background of the organization, Hilton is at mature stage of organizational life cycle. Although company is still growing and developing, the paste of growth is significantly lesser than three decades back. The hospitality industry in general is highly competitive, which was identified in previous studies using the Porter Five Forces Analyses. 19 Recommendation Continues development: Although Hilton has been using strategy of continues innovations and development, it is highly advisable for Hilton to pursue on the path of continues development. This has to be done in order to maintain company among industry leaders. Innovations and constant adjustment to always changing demand and industry trends is a key for not to fall back behind competitors and new brands. Home2 Suite: It is a business unit that has been indicated as Problem Child of the company due to numerous factors. The young business unit was inserted into extended stay market segment operation as first service apartment property within organization. Despite being identified as problem child, it seems that company growing at fast paste establishing 100 properties over spam of five years. Author believes that the unit has potential to become a Star of the organization; therefore it is suggested to continue invest into company expending and support new unit with potential. Emerging Market: although the organization is taking full advantage of emerging markets in South America and Asia, the author of report suggest that organization continue further expend focusing on India, China and Brazil, the world most potential economies with stable high growth. New markets have a high potential to become regional financial centers in the future; therefore allowing company to gain significant financial benefit. Hilton as the franchise company has an advantage of expending into foreigner countries without the need of going through legal process to penetrate the market. 20 References CONRAD HOTELS AND RESORTS, 2013. Home. [online]. Conrad. Available from: http://conradhotels3.hilton.com/en/index.html?WT.mc_id=zMWWAAA0EA1WW2PSH3Search4DGGeneric7GW842004&WT.srch=1&utm_source=AdWords&utm_medium=ppc&utm_campaign=paidsearch [Accessed 26 January 2014]. DATAMONITOR: Hilton Worldwide. 2011. Hilton Hotels Corporation SWOT Analysis. Datamonitor: Hilton worldwide, 1(1) p. 1-9. GURAU, C., 2007. Porter’s generic strategies: a re-interpretation from a relationship marketing perspective. The Marketing Review, 7(4), pp. 369-383. HAMBRICK, D., MACMILIAN, I. and DAY, D., 1982. Strategic attributes and performance in the bcg matrix- a pims-based analysis of industrial product business. Acadamy of Management Journal, 25(3), pp. 510-531. Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P, 2012. Hilton Worldwide HP ePrint Public Print Location service contributes to premium guest experience. [online]. Available from: http://h20195.www2.hp.com

November 4, 2015

Mass of the Catechumens

Mass of the Catechumens,P. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. S. Amen. P. In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, + and of the Holy Spirit. S. Amen,Psalm 42 (Omit during Passiontide) P. Introibo ad altare Dei S Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam. P. Judica me, Deus, et discerne causam meam de gente non sancta: ab homine iniquo et doloso erue me. P. I will go to the altar of God. S. To God, the joy of my youth. P. Do me justice, O God, and fight my fight against an unholy people, rescue me from the wicked and deceitful man. S. Quia tu es, Deus, fortitudo mea: quare me repulisti, et quare tristis incedo, dum affligit me inimicus? S. For Thou, O God, art my strength, why hast Thou forsaken me? And why do I go about in sadness, while the enemy harasses me? P. Emitte lucem tuam et veritatem tuam: ipsa me deduxerunt et adduxerunt in montem sanctum tuum, et in tabernacula tua. P. Send forth Thy light and thy truth: for they have led me and brought me to thy holy hill and Thy dwelling place. S. Et introibo ad altare Dei: ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam. P. Confitebor tibi in cithara, Deus, Deus meus quare tristis es anima mea, et quare conturbas me? S. And I will go to the altar of god, to God, the joy of my youth. P. I shall yet praise Thee upon the harp, O God, my God. Why art thou sad, my soul, and why art thou downcast? S. Spera in Deo, quoniam adhuc confitebor illi: salutare vultus mei, et Deus meus. S. Trust in God, for I shall yet praise Him, my Savior, and my God. P. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. P. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. S. Sicut erat in principo, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. S. As it was in the beginning is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen. P. Introibo ad altare Dei. S. Ad Deum qui laetificat juventutem meam. P. I will go to the altar of God. S. To God, the joy of my youth. P. Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. S. Qui fecit coelum et terram. P. Our help + is in the Name of the Lord. S. Who made heaven and earth.,Confiteor,(Priest’s Confession) P. Confiteor Deo omnipotenti, beatae Mariae semper Virgini, beato Michaeli Archangelo, beato Joanni Baptistae, sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, omnibus Sanctis, et tibi Pater: quia peccavi nimis cogitatione verbo, et opere: mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Virginem, beatum Michaelem Archangelum, beatum Joannem Baptistam, sanctos Apostolos Petrum et Paulum, omnes Sanctos, et te Pater, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum Nostrum. P. I confess to Almighty God, to Blessed Mary ever Virgin, to Blessed Michael the Archangel, to Blessed John the Baptist, to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, to all the angels and saints, and to you my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, deed.(here he strikes his breast three times) through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault, and I ask Blessed Mary ever Virgin, Blessed Michael the Archangel, Blessed John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, all the Angels and Saints, and you my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God. S. Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus, et dimissis peccatis tuis, perducat te ad vitam aeternam. P. Amen. S. May almighty God have mercy on you, forgive you all your sins, and bring you to everlasting life. P. Amen. (People’s Confession) S. Confiteor Deo omnipotenti, beatae Mariae semper Virgini, beato Michaeli Archangelo, beato Joanni Baptistae, sanctis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, omnibus Sanctis, et tibi Pater: quia peccavi nimis cogitatione verbo, et opere: mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa. Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Virginem, beatum Michaelem Archangelum, beatum Joannem Baptistam, sanctos Apostolos Petrum et Paulum, omnes Sanctos, et te Pater, orare pro me ad Dominum Deum Nostrum. S. I confess to Almighty God, to Blessed Mary ever Virgin, to Blessed Michael the Archangel, to Blessed John the Baptist, to the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, to all the angels and saints, and to you my brothers and sisters, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word, deed.(here one strikes one’s breast three times) through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault, and I ask Blessed Mary ever Virgin, Blessed Michael the Archangel, Blessed John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, all the Angels and Saints, and you my brothers and sisters, to pray for me to the Lord our God. P. Misereatur tui omnipotens Deus, et dimissis peccatis tuis, perducat te ad vitam aeternam. S. Amen. P. May Almighty God have mercy on you, forgive you your sins, and bring you to everlasting life. S. Amen P. Indulgentiam absolutionem, et remissionem peccatorum nostrorum, tributat nobis omnipotens et misericors Dominus. S. Amen. P. May the Almighty and Merciful Lord grant us pardon, + absolution, and remission of our sins.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,S. Amen. P. Deus, tu conversus vivificabis nos.. S. Et plebs tua laetabitur in te. P. Ostende nobis Domine, misericordiam tuam. S. Et salutare tuum da nobis. P. Turn to us, O God, and bring us life. S. And Your people will rejoice in You. P. Show us, Lord, Your mercy. S. And grant us Your salvation. P. Domine, exuadi orationem meam. S. Et clamor meus ad te veniat. P. Dominus vobiscum. S. Et cum spiritu tuo. P. O Lord, hear my prayer. S. And let my cry come to You. P. May the Lord be with you. S. And with your spirit. P. Oremus. P. Let us pray. (The Priest inaudibly says the following while going to the Altar) P. Aufer a nobis, quaesumus, Domine, iniquitates nostras ut ad Sancta sanctorum puris mereamur mentibus introire. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. P. Take away from us, O Lord, we beseech You, that we may enter with pure minds into the Holy of Holies. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. (He kisses the altar at the place where the saint’s relics are enclosed an says:) P. Oramus te. Domine, per merita Sanctorum tuorum, quorum reliquiae hic sunt, et omnium Sanctorum: ut indulgere digneris omnia peccata mea. Amen. P. We beseech You, O Lord, by the merits of Your Saints whose relics lie here, and of all the Saints, deign in your mercy to pardon me all my sins. Amen. (At this point in a sung or high Mass the celebrant now censes the altar. He says:) P: May this incense be blessed by him in whose honour it is to be burned. Amen.,Introit Antiphon,(said by Priest here, but sung by the Choir after the sign of the Cross),Kyrie P. Kyrie eleison. S. Kyrie eleison. P. Kyrie eleison. S. Christe eleison. P. Christe eleison. S. Christe eleison. P. Kyrie eleison. S. Kyrie eleison. P. Kyrie eleison. P. Lord, have mercy. S. Lord, have mercy. P. Lord, have mercy. P. Christ, have mercy. S. Christ, have mercy P. Christ, have mercy. P. Lord, have mercy. S. Lord, have mercy. P. Lord, have mercy,Gloria,Sung or said on all Sundays (except during penitential seasons) and on many other days, but never at Mass for the Dead. P. Gloria in exceslis Deo. P. Glory to God in the highest. (The priest concludes the Gloria below and sits while the choir sings it) C. Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te. Glorificamus te. Gratiam agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex coelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris,. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis.. Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu solus Sanctus. Tu solus Dominus. To solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris.. Amen. C. And on earth peace to people of good will. We praise You. We bless You. We worship You. We glorify You. Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father almighty. Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son. Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father. You who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.. You who take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy on us. For You alone are holy. You alone are Lord. You alone are the Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit, in the Glory of God the Father. Amen.,The Prayer,(Here the Priest prays the collect for the day.) P. Dominus Vobiscum. S. Et cum spiritu tuo. P. Oremus. P. May the Lord be with you. S. And with your Spirit. P. Let us pray. (after having read the one or more Prayers of the day:) P. Per omnia saecula saeculorum. S. Amen. P. For ever and ever S. Amen.,The Epistle,(sit) P/L: A reading from the…. (The Subdeacon or Lector reads the lesson here). (The epistle for the day is read at this point, at the end of the reading, the server responds:) P. Verbum Domini. S. Deo gratias. P/L. The Word of the Lord. S. Thanks be to God.,Graduale,Here the Gradual is sung, while the preparation for the Gospel occurs. The Alleluia, and Sequence Paschale victimae in the Easter Vigil, Veni, sancte Spiritus on Pentecost, Lauda Sion on Corpus Christi, Stabat Mater on Our Lady of Sorrows, Dies Irae on All Souls and in requiem and Funeral Masses. In Lent and at Masses for the dead the Alleluia is omitted and a tract sung instead.,Munda cor Meum,D. Munda cor meum ac labia mea, omnipotens Deus, qui labia Isaiae Prophetae calculo mundasti ignito: ita me tua grata miseratione dignare mundare, ut sanctum Evangelium tuum digne valeam nuntiare. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. Jube, Domine benedicere. D. Cleanse my heart and my lips, O Almighty God, Who cleansed the lips of the Prophet Isaiah with a burning coal. In Your gracious mercy deign so to purify me that I may worthily proclaim Your holy Gospel. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. Lord, grant me your blessing. P. Dominus sit in corde meo et in labiis meis. ut digne et competenter annuntiem evangelium suum. D. Amen. P. The Lord be in your heart and on your lips that you may worthily and fittingly proclaim His holy Gospel. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, + and of the Holy Spirit. D. Amen,TheGospel,(stand) P/D. Dominus vobiscum. S. Et cum spiritu tuo. P/D. May the Lord be with you. S. And with your spirit. P/D. Sequentia (or Initium) sancti Evangelii secundum N. P/D. + A continuation of the holy Gospel according to St. (name). (The Gospel book is incensed) S. Gloria tibi, Domine. S. Glory to you, O Lord. (The Gospel is read) (at the end of the reading the Deacon says:) S. Laus tibi, Christe. S. Praise to you, O Christ. (Afterwards at high Mass, the deacon takes the book to the cleebrant who kisses it, saying:) P. Per evangelica dicta deleantur nostra delicta. P. May the words of the gospel wipe away our sins.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,,Homily or Sermon (sit),Nicene Creed (as with the Gloria, the Priest recites the Creed and then sits while the choir sings it) Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, not factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine: ET HOMO FACTUS EST. Crucifixus etiam pro nobis; sub Pontio Pilato passus, et sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas. Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad desteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est com gloria judicare vivos et mortuos. cujus regni non erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam ventura saeculi. Amen. I believe in one God, The Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God. Born of the Father before all ages. God of God, Light of Light, true God of true God. Begotten, not made, of one substance with the Father. By whom all things were made. Who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven. (here all present kneel) And became incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary: AND WAS MADE MAN. (here all arise) He was also crucified for us, suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was buried. And on the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead and His kingdom will have no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, Who proceeds from the Father and the Son. Who together with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, and who spoke through the prophets. And one holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. I confess one baptism for the forgiveness of sins and I await the resurrection of the dead and the life + of the world to come. Amen. P. Dominus vobiscum. S. Et cum spiritu tuo. P. Oremus. P. May the Lord be with you. S. And with your spirit. P. Let us pray.,(In the early Church, at this point the learners, or catechumens were dismissed.),Mass of the Faithful Offertory Verse (The offertory Antiphon is sung while the Priest begins the Offertory) (sit),Offertory Prayers (said in a low voice while choir sings Offertory verse) P. Suscipe, sancte Pater, omnipotens aeterne Deus, hanc immaculatam hostiam, quam ego indignus famulus tuus offero tibi, Deo meo vivo et vero, pro innumerabilibus peccatis, et offensionibus, et negligentiis meis, et pro omnibus circumstantibus, sed et pro omnibus fidelibus Christianis vivis atque defunctis. ut mihi, et illis proficiat ad salutem in vitam aeternam. S.Amen. P. Accept, O Holy Father, Almighty and eternal God, this spotless host, which I, your unworthy servant, offer to You, my living and true God, to atone for my numberless sins, offenses and negligences; on behalf of all here present and likewise for all faithful Christians living and dead, that it may profit me and them as a means of salvation to life everlasting. S. Amen. P. Deus, qui humanae substantiae dignitatem mirabiliter condidisti, et mirabilius reformasti: da nobis per hujus aquae et vini mysterium, ejus divinitatis esse consortes, qui humanitatis nostrae fieri dignatus est particeps, Jesus Christus Filius tuus Dominus noster: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. per omnia saecula saeculorum. Amen. P. O God, + who established the nature of man in wondrous dignity, and still more admirably restored it, grant that by the mystery of this water and wine, may we come to share in His Divinity, who humbled himself to share in our humanity, Jesus Christ, Your Son, our Lord. who lives and reigns with You in the unity of the holy Spirit, one God, forever and ever. Amen. P. Offerimus tibi, Domine, calicem salutaris tuam deprecantes clementiam: ut in conspectu divinae majestatis tuae, pro nostra et totius mundi salute com odore suavitatis ascendat. Amen. P. We offer You, O Lord, the chalice of salvation, humbly begging of Your mercy that it may arise before Your divine Majesty, with a pleasing fragrance, for our salvation and for that of the whole world. Amen. P. In spiritu humilitatis, et in animo contrito suscipiamur a te, Domine, et sic fiat sacrificum nostrum in conspectu tuo hodie, ut placeat tibi, Domine Deus. P. In a humble spirit and with a contrite heart, may we be accepted by You, O Lord, and may our sacrifice so be offered in Your sight this day as to please You, O Lord God. P. Veni, Sanctificator omnipotens aeterne Deus. et bene dic hoc sacrificum tuo sancto nomini praeparatum. P. Come, O Sanctifier, Almighty and Eternal God, and bless, + this sacrifice prepared for the glory of Your holy Name. (When Mass is sung, the celebrant now blesses incense, saying) P. Per intercessionem beati Michaelis Archangeli, stantis a dextris altaris incensi, et omnium electorum suorum, incensum istud dignetur Dominus bene dicere, et in odorem suavitatis accipere. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. P. Through the intercession of Blessed Michael the Archangel, standing at the right hand of the altar of incense, and of all His elect may the Lord vouchsafe to bless + this incense and to receive it in the odor of sweetness. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. (He censes the offerings, the cross and the altar, saying:) P. Incensum istud a te benedictum, ascendat ad re, Domine, et descendat super nos misericordia tua. P. May this incense blessed by You, arise before You, O Lord, and may Your mercy come down upon us (while incensing the altar) P. Dirigatur, Domine, oratio mea sicut incensum in conspectu tuo: elevatio manuum mearum sacrificium vespertinum. Pone, Domine, custodiam ori meo, et ostium circumstantiae labiis meis : ut non declinet cor meum in verba malitiae, ad excsandas excusationes in peccatis. P. Let my prayer, O Lord, come like incense before You; the lifting up of my hands, like the evening sacrifice. O Lord, set a watch before my mouth, a guard at the door of my lips. Let not my heart incline to the evil of engaging in deeds of wickedness.. (while handing the thurible back) P. Accendat in nobis Dominus ignem sui amoris, et flammam aeterne caritatis. Amen. P. May the Lord enkindle in us the fire of His love and the flame of everlasting charity. Amen (Now the celebrant, the ministers, the servers, and the people are censed in order),(The celebrant washes his fingers, saying these verses of Psalm 25:) P. Lavabo inter innocentes manus meas. et circumdabo altare tuum, Domine. Ut audiam vocem laudis. et enarrem universa mirabila tua. Domine, dilexi decorem domus tuae: et locum habitationis gloriae tuae. Ne perdas cum impiis, Deus animam meam: et cum viris sanguinum vitam meam: in quorum manibus iniquitates sunt: dextera eorum repleta est muneribus. Ego autem in innocentia mea ingressus sum: redime me, et miserere mei. Pes meus stetit in directo: in ecclesiis benedicam te, Domine. P. I wash my hands in innocence, and I go around Your altar, O Lord, giving voice to my thanks, and recounting all Your wondrous deeds. O Lord, I love the house in which You dwell, the tenting place of Your glory. Gather not my soul with those of sinners, nor with men of blood my life. On their hands are crimes, and their right hands are full of bribes. But I walk in integrity; redeem me, and have pity on me My foot stands on level ground; in the assemblies I will bless You, O Lord.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in proncipio, et nunc, et semper: et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen. (facing at the middle of the altar, the priest prays P. Suscipe sancta Trinitas, hanc oblationem, quam tibi offerimus ob memoriam passionis, resurrectionis, et ascensionis Jesu Christi Domini nostri: et in monorem beatae Mariae semper Virginis, wt beati Joannis Baptistae, et sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, et istorum, et monium Sanctorum: ut illis proficiat ad honorem, nobis autem ad salutem: et illi pro nobis intercedere dignentur in coelis, quorum memoriam agimus in terris. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. S. Amen. P. Accept, most Holy Trinity, this offering which we are making to You in remembrance of the passion, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ, Our Lord; and in honor of blessed Mary, ever Virgin, Blessed John the Baptist, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and of (name of the Saints whose relics are in the Altar) and of all the Saints; that it may add to their honor and aid our salvation; and may they deign to intercede in heaven for us who honor their memory here on earth. Through the same Christ our Lord. S. Amen.,(He turns to the congregation and calls on them to join their prayers with his:) P. Orate fratres, et meum ac vestrum sacrificium acceptabile fiat apud Deum Patrem omnipotentem. P. Pray brethren, that my Sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty. S. Suscipiat Dominus sacrificium de manibus tuis ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui, ad utilitatem quoque nostram, totiusque Ecclesiae suae sanctae. S. May the Lord receive the Sacrifice from your hands to the praise and glory of His Name, for our good, and that of all His holy Church.,The Secret,(The Priest here says the day’s Secret prayer:) (At the end of the Secret, the Priest says audibly:) P. ..per omnia saecula saeculorum. S. Amen. P. ..forever and ever. S. Amen.,Canon of the Mass (Stand) P. Dominus vobiscum. S. Et cum spiritu tuo. P. Sursum corda. S. Habemus ad Dominum. P. Gratias agamus Domino Deo nostro. S. Dignum et justum est. P. May the Lord be with you. S. And with your spirit. P. Lift up your hearts. S. We have lifted them up to the Lord. P. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. S. It is right and just.,(Here the Priest says the appropriate Preface. This is the Preface of the Holy Trinity) P. Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, nos tibi semper, et ubique gratias agere: Domine sancte, Pater omnipotens, aeterne Deus. qui cum unigenito Filio tuo, et Spiritu Sancto, unus es Deus, unus es Dominus. non in unius singularitate personae, sed in unius Trinitate substantiae. Quod enim de tua gloria, revelante te, credimus, hoc de filio tuo, hoc de Spiritu Sancto, sine differentia discretionis sentimus. Ut in confessione verae sempiternaeque Deitatis, et in personis proprietas, et in essentia unitas, et in majestate adoretur aequalitas. Quam laudant Angeli atque Archangeli, Cherubim quoque ac Seraphim: qui non cessant clamare quotidie, una cove discentes. P. It is indeed fitting and right, our duty and our salvation, always and everywhere to give thanks to You, Lord, Holy Father, almighty and eternal God, who with Your only-begotten Son and the Holy Spirit are one God, one Lord: Not in the oneness of a single person, but three persons in one single essence. For what we believe from your revelation concerning Your glory, that also we believe of Your Son and of the Holy Spirit without difference or distinction; so that when we affirm the true and everlasting Godhead we worship three distinct persons in a oneness of Being and with equality of majesty. And that God the angels praise with the archangels, cherubim, and seraphs, ceaselessly singing with one voice:,Sanctus (Sung as the Priest begins the canon. All the prayers are said in a low voice.) S/C. Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua. Hosanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Hosanna in excelsis. S/C. Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are filled with your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is He Who comes in the Name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,,The Roman Canon,(kneel) P. Te igitur, clementissime Pater, per Jesum Christum Filium tuum, Dominum nostrum, supplices rogamus ac petimus uti accepta habeas, et benedicas haec dona, haec munera, haec sancta sacrificia illibata; in primis quae tibi offerimus pro Ecclesia tua sancta catholica; quam pacificare, custodire, adunare, et regere digneris toto orbe terrarum: una cum famulo tuo Papa nostro N.,et Antistite nostro N. et omnibus orthodoxis, atque catholicae et aostolicae fidei cultoribus. P. Therefore, most gracious Father, we humbly beg of You and entreat You through Jesus Christ Your Son, Our Lord. Hold acceptable and bless + these gifts, these + offerings, these + holy and unspotted oblations which, in the first place, we offer You for your Holy Catholic Church. Grant her peace and protection, unity and guidance throughout the worlds, together with Your servant (name), our Pope, and (name), our Bishop; and all Orthodox believers who cherish the Catholic and Apostolic Faith. P. Memento, Domine, famulorum, famularumque tuarum N. et N. et omnium circumstantium, quorum tibi fides cognita est, et nota devotio, pro quibus tibi offerimus. vel qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificium laudis pro se, suisque omnibus, pro redemptione animarum suarum, pro spe salutis, et incolumitis suae; tibique reddunt vota sua aeterno Deo, vivo et vero. P. Remember, O Lord, Your servants and handmaids, (name) and (name), and all here present, whose faith and devotion are known to You. On whose behalf we offer to You, or who themselves offer to You this sacrifice of praise for themselves, families and friends, for the good of their souls, for their hope of salvation and deliverance from all harm, and who offer their homage to You, eternal, living and true God. (This next prayer has special beginnings for certain feasts. This is the usual version.) P. Communicantes, et memoriam venerantes in primis gloriosae semper Virginis Mariae, Genitricis Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi: sed et beati Joseph ejusdem Virginis Sponsi, et beatorum Apostolorum ac Martyrum tuorum, Petri et Pauli, Andreae, Jacobi, Joannis, Thomae, Jacobi, Philippi, Bartholomaei, Matthaei, Simonis, et Thaddaei: Lini, Cleti, Clementis, Xysti, Cornelii, Cypriani, Laurentii, Chrysogoni, Joannis et Pauli, Cosmae et Damiani, et omnium Sanctorum tuorum; quorum meritis precibusque concedas, ut in omnibus protectionis tuae muniamur auxilio. Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. P. In the unity of holy fellowship we observe the memory, first of all, of the glorious and ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our Lord and God Jesus Christ. Next we observe the memory of Blessed Joseph, Spouse of the same Virgin, and of Your blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Thaddeus; of Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Lawrence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian, and all Your Saints. By their merits and prayers grant that we may be always fortified by the help of Your protection. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. P. Hanc igitur oblationem servitutis nostrae, sed et cunctae familiae tuae quaesumus, Domine, ut placatus accipias, diesque nostros in tua pace disponas, atque ab aeterna damnatione nos eripi, et in electorum tuorum jubeas grege numerari. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. P. Graciously accept, then, we beseech You, O Lord, this service of our worship and that of all Your household. Provide that our days be spent in Your peace, save us from everlasting damnation, and cause us to be numbered in the flock you have chosen. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. P. Quam oblationem tu, Deus, in omnibus, quaesumus, benedictam, adscriptam, ratam, rationabilem, acceptabilemque facere digneris,. ut nobis Corpus, et Sanguis fiatdilectissimi Filii tui Domini nostri Jesu Christi. P. O God, deign to bless + what we offer, and make it approved, + effective, + right, + and wholly pleasing in every way, that it may become for our good, the Body + and Blood + of Your dearly beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.,The Consecration,P. Qui pridie quam pateretur, accepit panem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas, et elevatis oculis in coelum ad te Deum Patrem suum omnipotentem tibi gratias agens, benedixit, fregit, diditque discipulis suis, dicens: Accipite,et manducate ex hoc omnes: P. Who, the day before He suffered, took bread into His holy and venerable hands, and having raised His eyes to heaven to you, God, His Almighty Father, giving thanks to You, He blessed, + it broke it, and gave it to His disciples, saying: “Take and eat of this, all of you, HOC EST ENIM CORPUS MEUM. FOR THIS IS MY BODY.” (The Body of Christ is lifted up for worship). P. Simili modo postquam coenatum est, accipiens et hunc praeclarum Calicem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas. item tibi gratias agens, benedixit, deditque discipulis suis, dicens. Accepite, et bibite ex eo omnes: P. Similarly, when the supper was ended, taking also this goodly chalice into His holy and venerable hands, again giving thanks to You, He blessed it, and gave it to His disciples, saying: “Take and drink of this, all of you, HIC EST ENIM CALIX SANGUINIS MEI, NOVI ET AETERNI TESTAMENTI: MYSTERIUM FIDEI: QUI PRO VOBIS ET PRO MULTIS EFFUNDETUR IN REMISSIONEM PECCATORUM. THIS IS THE CHALICE OF MY BLOOD OF THE NEW AND ETERNAL COVENANT: THE MYSTERY OF FAITH: WHICH IS BEING SHED FOR YOU AND FOR MANY FOR THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS Haec quotiescumque feceritis, in mei memoriam facietis. As often as you shall do these actions, do this in memory of Me.” (The Blood of Christ is lifted up for worship). P. Unde et momores, Domine, nos servi tui, sed et plebs tua sancta, ejusdem Christi Filii tui Domini nostri tam beatae Passionis, nec non et ab inferis Resurrectionis, sed et in coelos gloriosae Ascensionis. offerimus praeclarae majertati tuae de tuis donis ac datis hostiam puram, hostiam sanctam, hostiam immaculatam, Panem sanctum vitae aeternae, et calicem salutis perpetuae. P. Mindful, therefore, Lord, we, Your ministers, as also Your holy people, of the same Christ, Your Son, our Lord, remember His blessed passion, and also of His Resurrection from the dead, and finally of His glorious Ascension into heaven, offer to Your supreme Majesty, of the gifts bestowed upon us, the pure + Victim, the holy + Victim, the all-perfect + Victim: the holy + Bread of life eternal and the Chalice + of perpetual salvation. P. Supra quae propitio ac sereno vultu respicere digneris; et accepta habere, sicuti accepta habere dignatus es munera pueri tui justi Abel, et sacrificium patriarchae nostri Abrahae, et quod tibi obtulit summus sacerdos tuus Melchisedech, sanctum sacrificium, immaculatam hostiam. P. Deign to regard with gracious and kindly attention and hold acceptable, as You deigned to accept the offerings of Abel, Your just servant, and the sacrifice of Abraham our Patriarch, and that which Your chief priest Melchisedech offered to You, a holy Sacrifice and a spotless victim. P. Supplices te rogamus, omnipotens Deus, jube haec perferri per manus sancti Angeli tui in sublime altare tuum, in conspectu dininae majertatis tuae: ut quoquot ex hac altaris participatione, sacrocanctum Filii tui Corpus, et Sanguinem sumpserimus, omni benedictione coelesti et gratia repleamur. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. P. Most humbly we implore You, Almighty God, bid these offerings to be brought by the hands of Your Holy Angel to Your altar above, before the face of Your Divine Majesty. And may those of us who by sharing in the Sacrifice of this altar shall receive the Most Sacred + Body and + Blood of Your Son, be filled with every grace and heavenly blessing, Through Christ our Lord. Amen. P. Memento etiam, Domine, famulorum famularumque tuarum N. et N. qui nos praecesserunt cum signo fidei, et dormiunt in somno pacis. Ipsis, Domine, et omnibus in Christo quiescentibus, locum refrigerii, lucis et pacis, utindulgeas, deprecamur. Per eumdem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. P. Remember also, Lord, Your servants and handmaids (name) and (name) who have gone before us with the sign of faith and rest in the sleep of peace. To these, Lord, and to all who rest in Christ, we beg You to grant of Your goodness a place of comfort, light, and peace. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.,Need a Professional Writer to Work on this Paper and Give you Original Paper? CLICK HERE TO GET THIS PAPER WRITTEN,P. Nobis quoque peccatoribus famulis tuis, de multitudine miserationum tuarum sperantibus, partem aliquam, et societatem donare digneris, cum tuis sanctis Apostolis et Martyribus, cum Joanne, Stephano, Matthia, Barnaba, Ignatio, Alexandro, Marcellino, Petro, Felicitate, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucia, Agnete, Caecilia, Anastasis, et omnibus Sanctis tuis, intra quorum nos consortium, non aestimator meritim sed veniae, quaesumus, largitor admitte. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. P. To us sinners also, Your servants, trusting in the greatness of Your mercy, deign to grant some part and fellowship with Your Holy Apostles and Martyrs with John Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicity, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia, and all Your Saints. Into their company we implore You to admit us, not weighing our merits, but freely granting us pard

BUY QUALITY ESSAYS
20% DISCOUNT TODAY
URGENT ESSAYS
IMPROVE YOUR GRADES
PROFESSIONAL WRITERS
PERSONALIZED SERVICES
ORIGINAL PAPERS
TIMELY DELIVERY